Linguistics Cognitive Linguistics
by
Vyvyan Evans
  • LAST MODIFIED: 28 October 2011
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0059

Introduction

Cognitive linguistics is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of language, mind, and sociocultural experience that first emerged in the 1970s. Cognitive linguistics is characterized by a commitment to the inseparability of meaning and form in the study of language. It also takes the view that language reflects general aspects of cognition rather than adopting a modular view of mind. A further feature of the approach is the view that language is best studied in the context of use and indeed emerges from it. Cognitive linguists have predominantly focused on two general areas of inquiry: the study of language organization (cognitive approaches to grammar) and language as a means of studying aspects of conceptual structure (cognitive semantics). Cognitive linguistics is an increasingly influential approach in cognitive science, social science, and applied linguistics.

Foundational Works

Cognitive linguistics emerged from research conducted by prominent scholars working on the West Coast of the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. Most notable among these are Ronald W. Langacker (Langacker 1987–1991), who developed the theory of cognitive grammar (see Cognitive Grammar); George Lakoff (Lakoff 1987), who applied work on categorization to metaphor, lexical semantics, and grammar; and Leonard Talmy (Talmy 2000), who studied the conceptual basis of grammar. These three researchers are widely considered to be the founding fathers of the enterprise. Also foundational ware Lakoff and Johnson 1980, which developed conceptual metaphor theory (see Conceptual Metaphor Theory) and Johnson 1987, which developed the theory of image schema (see Image Schema Theory) that grew out of work on conceptual metaphors. Other important work that has proved to be foundational was developed in Fillmore 1982 on frame semantics (see Frame Semantics) and Fillmore, et al. 1988, which provided the basis for the theory of construction grammar (see Construction Grammar). Fauconnier 1994 developed the theory of mental spaces (see Mental Spaces Theory), which later gave rise to conceptual integration theory (see Conceptual Integration Theory).

  • Fauconnier, Gilles. 1994. Mental spaces. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511624582Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

    This work develops a cognitive linguistic approach to meaning construction and discourse semantics. This perspective was foundational for the later development of conceptual integration theory (see Conceptual Integration Theory). Originally published by MIT Press in 1985.

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    • Fillmore, Charles. 1982. Frame semantics. In Linguistics in the morning calm. Edited by the Linguistic Society of Korea, 111–137. Seoul, South Korea: Hanshin.

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      The best-developed early presentation of frame semantics. This has been seminal for encyclopedic approaches to lexical semantics and the later development of construction grammar (see Construction Grammar).

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      • Fillmore, Charles, Paul Kay, and Catherine O’Connor. 1988. Regularity and idiomaticity: The case of “let alone.” Language 64.3: 501–538.

        DOI: 10.2307/414531Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

        This paper presents the seminal statement on construction grammar (see Construction Grammar).

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        • Johnson, Mark. 1987. The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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          This work develops the theoretical construct of the image schema, one of the most important ideas in cognitive linguistics.

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          • Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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            The seminal application of Eleanor Rosch’s work on categorization and prototype theory (see Prototype Theory) to linguistic semantics, grammar, and metaphor.

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            • Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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              One of the most influential books in late 20th-century linguistics. This work argues for a conceptual basis for metaphor and metonymy and develops the framework of conceptual metaphor theory (see Conceptual Metaphor Theory). It was one of the earliest works to argue for an embodied basis for conceptual and linguistic organization.

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              • Langacker, Ronald W. 1987–1991. Foundations of cognitive grammar. 2 vols. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. Press.

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                These volumes develop the foundational assumptions (Vol. 1) and applications (Vol. 2) of the distinctive approach to grammatical structure, representation, and meaning that is cognitive grammar (see Cognitive Grammar).

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                • Talmy, Leonard. 2000. Toward a cognitive semantics. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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                  This is a collection of seminal articles by Talmy originally published in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s that have been highly influential in the development of cognitive linguistics.

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                  Textbooks

                  There are several excellent introductory overview textbooks of cognitive linguistics. Ungerer and Schmid 2006 is now in its second edition. The most advanced is Croft and Cruse 2004, which reflects the authors’ own research foci and specialties. The most comprehensive is Evans and Green 2006, which provides a representative sampling of the state of the art. Lee 2001 is the most accessible textbook. There are also textbooks that introduce topics in language study presented from a cognitive linguistics perspective. Radden and Dirven 2007 is an introduction to English grammar, and Taylor 2003 deals with linguistic categorization. Taylor 2002 is a useful textbook that introduces Ronald W. Langacker’s theory of cognitive grammar (see Cognitive Grammar). Stockwell 2002 introduces cognitive poetics, and Kövecses 2002 introduces conceptual metaphor theory (see Conceptual Metaphor Theory).

                  • Croft, William, and D. Alan Cruse. 2004. Cognitive linguistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                    Particularly good coverage of lexical semantics and constructional approaches to grammar.

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                    • Evans, Vyvyan, and Melanie Green. 2006. Cognitive linguistics: An introduction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                      The most comprehensive general introduction to the field. Each chapter provides a detailed annotated reading list and exercises. Also includes chapters that compare cognitive linguistic theories with other theoretical frameworks.

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                      • Kövecses, Zoltán. 2002. Metaphor: A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                        A clear and highly accessible approach to metaphor analysis and some of the central aspects of conceptual metaphor theory (see Conceptual Metaphor Theory).

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                        • Lee, David. 2001. Cognitive linguistics: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                          An accessible general introduction focusing on general ideas rather than detail.

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                          • Radden, Günter, and René Dirven. 2007. Cognitive English grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                            An accessible introduction to the grammar of English, taking a cognitive linguistics perspective.

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                            • Stockwell, Peter. 2002. Cognitive poetics: An introduction. London: Routledge.

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                              A very accessible introduction to cognitive poetics from one of its leading proponents.

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                              • Taylor, John R. 2002. Cognitive grammar. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                An exceptionally clear and accessible introduction to Langacker’s theoretical framework.

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                                • Taylor, John R. 2003. Linguistic categorization. 3d ed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                  An excellent survey of prototypes and categories more generally in various areas of language study, including sound systems, meaning, word structure, and syntax.

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                                  • Ungerer, Friedrich, and Hans-Jörg Schmid. 2006. An introduction to cognitive linguistics. 2d ed. London: Pearson ESL.

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                                    Very clear explanations. particularly on prototype theory and basic-level objects research. The book focuses predominantly on topics in cognitive semantics rather than cognitive approaches to grammar.

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                                    Glossary

                                    The cognitive linguistics enterprise is rich in terminology. The field currently has one published glossary, Evans 2007.

                                    • Evans, Vyvyan. 2007. A glossary of cognitive linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press.

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                                      An alphabetical guide to the key terms in cognitive linguistics covering all the major theories, approaches, and ideas and many of the theoretical constructs associated with the paradigm.

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                                      Reference Resources

                                      Encyclopedias devoted to the fields of linguistics and cognitive science have entries on cognitive linguistics as well as major topics of study within the paradigm. Among the most comprehensive are Brown 2006 and Nadel 2005. Good single-volume encyclopedias are Hogan 2010 and Wilson and Keil 1999.

                                      Bibliographies

                                      Two electronic bibliographies are relevant for the paradigm of cognitive linguistics, one covering cognitive linguistics (Cognitive Linguistics Bibliography) and one covering metaphor and metonymy (Bibliography of Metaphor and Metonymy). Both are updated annually.

                                      Edited Collections

                                      There are several excellent edited volumes devoted to cognitive linguistics. The most comprehensive is Geeraerts and Cuyckens 2007. Other representative exemplars include Fauconnier and Sweetser 1996, Evans and Pourcel 2009, and Janssen and Redeker 1999. The field also boasts two collections of readings, Evans, et al. 2007 and Geeraerts 2006, and a volume dedicated to the methodological frameworks employed, Gonzalez-Marquez, et al. 2006.

                                      • Evans, Vyvyan, Benjamin K. Bergen, and Jörg Zinken, eds. 2007. The cognitive linguistics reader. London: Equinox.

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                                        A collection of twenty-eight classic papers, with an introductory article, that provides a broad overview of the major areas of research in cognitive linguistics.

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                                        • Evans, Vyvyan, and Stephanie Pourcel, eds. 2009. New directions in cognitive linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                          A collection of papers relating to established topics as well as new directions in cognitive linguistics.

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                                          • Fauconnier, Gilles, and Eve Sweetser, eds. 1996. Spaces, worlds, and grammar. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                            An early collection of papers exploring aspects of mental spaces theory (see Mental Spaces Theory), cognitive approaches to grammar, and conceptual metaphor theory (see Conceptual Metaphor Theory).

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                                            • Geeraerts, Dirk, ed. 2006. Cognitive linguistics: Basic readings. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                              DOI: 10.1515/9783110199901Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              A collection of twelve seminal papers by some of the leading figures in cognitive linguistics.

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                                              • Geeraerts, Dirk, and Hubert Cuyckens, eds. 2007. The Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                This volume consists of forty-nine specially commissioned chapters written by leading experts. The volume is conceived as providing a comprehensive overview of the approaches, theories, methodologies, and phenomena that fall under the purview of cognitive linguistics.

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                                                • Gonzalez-Marquez, Monica, I. Mittleberg, S. Coulson, and M. Spivey, eds. 2006. Methods in cognitive linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                  A volume of specially commissioned papers focusing on the range of methodologies employed by and available to cognitive linguistic researchers.

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                                                  • Janssen, Theo, and Gisela Redeker, eds. 1999. Cognitive linguistics: Foundations, scope, and methodology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                    A volume of papers exploring foundational aspects of cognitive linguistics by some of the key figures associated with the field.

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                                                    Journals

                                                    There are two international journals devoted to cognitive linguistics. Cognitive Linguistics is the more established, and Review of Cognitive Linguistics is the more recent. The journal Language and Cognition is devoted to the relationship between language and cognition, much of which is concerned with cognitive linguistics. Three journals relate to major topics of study in the field: Metaphor and Symbol, Metaphor and the Social World, and Cognitive Semiotics.

                                                    Cognitive Grammar

                                                    Cognitive grammar is an approach to grammatical structure developed by Ronald W. Langacker. Langacker 2008 is the most recent and most authoritative overview of the theory. Cognitive grammar has been applied in particular to locative expressions, as exemplified in Lindner 1981. The relation between nominal and clausal structures and the speech event is referred to as “grounding” in cognitive grammar. An exemplar is Brisard 2002. Much work has also been conducted on possessive constructions, for instance, Taylor 2000. There has been a considerable amount of work on clause structure (e.g., Tuggy 1988), including transitivity (Rice 1987), voice (Maldonado 1992), and case markers (Janda 1993). Van Hoek 1997 is an important treatment of anaphora in cognitive grammar.

                                                    • Brisard, Frank, ed. 2002. Grounding: The epistemic footing of deixis and reference. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                      An important edited collection covering nominal and clausal grounding primarily from the perspective of cognitive grammar.

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                                                      • Janda, Laura A. 1993. A geography of case semantics: The Czech dative and the Russian instrumental. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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                                                        A cognitive grammar study of case in Slavic languages.

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                                                        • Langacker, Ronald W. 2008. Cognitive grammar: A basic introduction. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                          A definitive introduction to cognitive grammar by the architect of the theory.

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                                                          • Lindner, Susan J. 1981. A lexico-semantic analysis of English verb-particle constructions with UP and OUT. PhD diss., Univ. of California, San Diego.

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                                                            A seminal application of cognitive grammar to verb particle constructions.

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                                                            • Maldonado, Ricardo. 1992. Middle voice: The case of Spanish “se.” PhD diss., Univ. of California, San Diego.

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                                                              A landmark treatment of voice deploying cognitive grammar.

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                                                              • Rice, Sally Ann. 1987. Towards a cognitive model of transitivity. PhD diss., Univ. of California, San Diego.

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                                                                An important treatment of transitivity in cognitive grammar.

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                                                                • Taylor, John R.2000. Possessives in English: An exploration in cognitive grammar. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                  This volume provides a unitary account of the possessive morpheme deploying the theory of cognitive grammar. A noteworthy feature of the book is that it compares and contrasts cognitive grammar with generative approaches.

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                                                                  • Tuggy, David. 1988. Náhuatl causative/applicatives in cognitive grammar. In Topics in cognitive linguistics. Edited by Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn, 587–618. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                    A seminal treatment of clause structure by one of the leading exponents of cognitive grammar.

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                                                                    • van Hoek, Karen. 1997. Anaphora and conceptual structure. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                      Now a classic, the seminal development of anaphora in cognitive grammar.

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                                                                      Construction Grammar

                                                                      The original work on construction grammar was developed in Fillmore 1988 and Kay and Fillmore 1999. Another important contribution derives from Lambrecht and Michaelis 1996. However, since Charles Fillmore’s seminal work, a number of distinct constructional theories have emerged. These include cognitive construction grammar, as exemplified in Lakoff 1987, Goldberg 1995, and Goldberg 2006; radical construction grammar (Croft 2001); embodied construction grammar (Bergen and Chang 2005); and, most recently, sign-based construction grammar (Sag 2010).

                                                                      • Bergen, Benjamin K., and Nancy Chang. 2005. Embodied construction grammar in simulation-based language understanding. In Construction grammars: Cognitive grounding and theoretical extensions. Edited by J. O. Östman and M. Fried, 147–190. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                        The most accessible account of embodied construction grammar.

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                                                                        • Croft, William. 2001. Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                          The definitive treatment of radical construction grammar.

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                                                                          • Fillmore, Charles. 1988. The mechanisms of construction grammar. Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 14:35–55.

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                                                                            An early treatment of the theoretical apparatus of construction grammar.

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                                                                            • Goldberg, Adele. 1995. Constructions: A construction grammar approach to argument-structure constructions. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                              The classic treatment of cognitive construction grammar.

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                                                                              • Goldberg, Adele. 2006. Constructions at work: The nature of generalization in language. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                A revised and updated account of cognitive construction grammar that focuses on how constructions are acquired and learned.

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                                                                                • Kay, Paul, and Charles Fillmore. 1999. Grammatical constructions and linguistic generalizations: The What’s X doing Y? construction. Language 75.1: 1–33.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.2307/417472Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  A seminal development of the theoretical architecture of construction grammar.

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                                                                                  • Lakoff, George. 1987. There constructions (case study 3). In Women, fire, and dangerous things. By George Lakoff, 462–585. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                    An influential early cognitive construction grammar account.

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                                                                                    • Lambrecht, Knud, and Laura A. Michaelis. 1996. Toward a construction-based theory of language function: The case of nominal extraposition. Language 72.2: 215–247.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.2307/416650Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      An important development of Fillmorean construction grammar.

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                                                                                      • Sag, Ivan. 2010. Sign-based construction grammar: An informal synopsis. In Sign-based construction grammar. Edited by Ivan Sag and Hans C. Boas, 39–170. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.

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                                                                                        A detailed account of sign-based construction grammar.

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                                                                                        Conceptual Integration Theory

                                                                                        Conceptual integration, or “blending,” is an account of dynamic meaning construction. The standard reference work is provided by the theory’s two architects in Fauconnier and Turner 2002. The role of frame structure in giving rise to blends is best exemplified in Coulson 2001. There is now also good event-related potentials (ERP) evidence for the role of conceptual integration in meaning construction (Coulson and van Petten 2002). The framework has been applied to literary texts and the staging of such texts (Cook 2010), to rhetoric (Oakley 1998), to grammar (Mandelblit 1997), and to sign language (Liddell 2000). The framework has also been applied to the development of material anchors that ground blends, for instance, in time telling (Williams 2005). The relationship between conceptual integration and figurative language, especially metaphor, has also been explored (Grady, et al. 1999).

                                                                                        • Cook, Amy. 2010. Shakespearean neuroplay: Reinvigorating the study of dramatic texts and performance through cognitive science. London: Macmillan.

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                                                                                          An important contemporary application of conceptual integration theory to the reading and staging of a literary text.

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                                                                                          • Coulson, Seana. 2001. Semantic leaps: Frame-shifting and conceptual blending in meaning construction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511551352Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            Now a classic. This work develops a detailed account of the deployment of frame structure in meaning construction and advances theoretical aspects of conceptual integration theory.

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                                                                                            • Coulson, Seana, and Cyma van Petten. 2002. Conceptual integration and metaphor: An event-related potential study. Memory and Cognition 30:958–968.

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                                                                                              Provides some of the first empirical evidence for the role of conceptual integration in meaning construction.

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                                                                                              • Fauconnier, Gilles, and Mark Turner. 2002. The way we think: Conceptual blending and the mind’s hidden complexities. New York: Basic Books.

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                                                                                                A classic work. The definitive treatment of conceptual integration theory by the architects of the theory.

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                                                                                                • Grady, Joseph E., Todd Oakley, and Seana Coulson. 1999. Conceptual blending and metaphor. In Metaphor in cognitive linguistics. Edited by Raymond W. Gibbs and Gerard Steen, 101–125. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                  An important paper examining the role of conceptual integration in metaphor and the relationship between conceptual integration theory and conceptual metaphor theory (see Conceptual Metaphor Theory).

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                                                                                                  • Liddell, Scott K. 2000. Blended spaces and deixis in sign language discourse. In Language and gesture. Edited by David McNeill, 331–357. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511620850Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                    An application of the conceptual integration framework to the study of signing.

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                                                                                                    • Mandelblit, Nili. 1997. Grammatical blending: Creative and schematic aspects in sentence processing and translation. PhD diss., Univ. of California, San Diego.

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                                                                                                      An important study of the role of blending in grammatical structure.

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                                                                                                      • Oakley, Todd. 1998. Conceptual blending, narrative discourse, and rhetoric. Cognitive Linguistics 9:321–360.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1515/cogl.1998.9.4.321Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        A seminal treatment of conceptual integration in the study of rhetoric.

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                                                                                                        • Williams, Robert. 2005. Material anchors and conceptual blends in time-telling. PhD diss., Univ. of California, San Diego.

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                                                                                                          A study of the role of material anchors in time telling deploying the framework of conceptual integration theory.

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                                                                                                          Conceptual Metaphor Theory

                                                                                                          Conceptual metaphor theory was developed by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. The definitive treatment is Lakoff and Johnson 1999. An important theoretical advance concerns the theory of primary metaphors (Grady 1997) as well as the extension to work on conceptual metonymy (Kövecses and Radden 1998). It has been applied to an extremely wide range of areas, including the study of poetics (Lakoff and Turner 1989), language change (Sweetser 1990), political science (Lakoff 2002), discourse (Musolff and Zinken 2009), and gestural studies (Cienki and Müller 2008). An influential study examining the empirical foundation for the theory is Gibbs 1994.

                                                                                                          • Cienki, Alan J., and Cornelia Müller, eds. 2008. Metaphor and gesture. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                            A collection of papers relating to the interdisciplinary study of metaphor and gesture.

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                                                                                                            • Gibbs, Raymond W. 1994. The poetics of mind. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                              Provides a review of empirical evidence (up to the mid-1990s) in favor of conceptual metaphor theory. This work was also important in the development of the study of metonymy as a conceptual phenomenon.

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                                                                                                              • Grady, Joseph E. 1997. Foundations of meaning: Primary metaphors and primary scenes. PhD diss., Univ. of California, Berkeley.

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                                                                                                                Develops the theory of primary metaphors, an important advance in conceptual metaphor theory.

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                                                                                                                • Kövecses, Zoltán, and Günter Radden. 1998. Metonymy: Developing a cognitive linguistic view. Cognitive Linguistics 9.1: 37–77.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1515/cogl.1998.9.1.37Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  A seminal development of metonymy as a conceptual phenomenon broadly situated within a conceptual metaphor theory perspective.

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                                                                                                                  • Lakoff, George. 2002. Moral politics: How liberals and conservatives think. 2d ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                    An application of conceptual metaphor theory to political thought.

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                                                                                                                    • Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1999. Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books.

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                                                                                                                      The most recent and definitive account of conceptual metaphor theory by the theory’s two architects.

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                                                                                                                      • Lakoff, George, and Mark Turner. 1989. More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                        A seminal work that develops the field of cognitive poetics by applying conceptual metaphor theory to literary analysis.

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                                                                                                                        • Musolff, Andreas, and Jörg Zinken, eds. 2009. Metaphor and discourse. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1057/9780230594647Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          A collection of papers deploying the construct of conceptual metaphor in discourse analysis.

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                                                                                                                          • Sweetser, Eve. 1990. From etymology to pragmatics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                            A seminal account of the role of conceptual metaphor in aspects of language change.

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                                                                                                                            Frame Semantics

                                                                                                                            Frame semantics evolved from Charles Fillmore’s original work on case theory (Fillmore 1968). While Fillmore worked on the theory of frame semantics in the 1970s, the two best-developed accounts appeared in the 1980s: Fillmore 1982 and Fillmore 1985. Since then the details of frame semantics have been worked out in a number of contexts, including from the perspective of lexicography (Fillmore and Atkins 1992) and more recently in terms of computational implementation under the guise of the FrameNet project. The architecture for FrameNet is presented in Boas 2005, its tagset is discussed in Johnson and Fillmore 2000, and the structure of its database is discussed in Baker, et al. 2003.

                                                                                                                            • Baker, Collin F., Charles Fillmore, and Beau Cronin. 2003. The structure of the FrameNet database. International Journal of Lexicography 16.3: 281–296.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1093/ijl/16.3.281Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              Provides an overview of the structure of the FrameNet database.

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                                                                                                                              • Boas, Hans C. 2005. From theory to practice: Frame semantics and the design of FrameNet. In Semantik im Lexikon. Edited by Stefan Langer and Daniel Schnorbusch, 129–160. Tübingen, Germany: Narr.

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                                                                                                                                An overview of the rationale for and architecture of FrameNet.

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                                                                                                                                • Fillmore, Charles J. 1968. The case for case. In Universals in linguistic theory. Edited by Emmon Bach and Robert Harms, 1–88. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

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                                                                                                                                  The classic paper on case grammar.

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                                                                                                                                  • Fillmore, Charles. 1982. Frame semantics. In Linguistics in the morning calm. Edited by the Linguistic Society of Korea, 111–137. Seoul, South Korea: Hanshin.

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                                                                                                                                    A seminal account of the theory of frame semantics.

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                                                                                                                                    • Fillmore, Charles. 1985. Frames and the semantics of understanding. Quaderni di Semantica 6.2: 222–254.

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                                                                                                                                      An account of the development of frame semantics and how it arose from case grammar.

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                                                                                                                                      • Fillmore, Charles, and B. Atkins. 1992. Towards a frame-based lexicon: The case of RISK. In Frames, fields, and contrasts. Edited by Adrienne Lehrer and Eva Feder Kittay, 75–102. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                        A detailed lexicographic analysis of RISK from a frame semantics perspective.

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                                                                                                                                        • FrameNet.

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                                                                                                                                          The FrameNet website. Includes the FrameNet data as well as an online book describing the project and a full listing of frame semantics resources.

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                                                                                                                                          • Johnson, C., and Charles J. Fillmore. 2000. The FrameNet tagset for frame-semantic and syntactic coding of predicate-argument structure. In Proceedings of the conferences: 1st Meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and proceedings of the ANLP-NAACL 2000 Student Research Workshop. Edited by the Association of Computational Linguistics, 56–62. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

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                                                                                                                                            Presents details of the tagging procedures for implementation of the FrameNet database.

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                                                                                                                                            Image Schema Theory

                                                                                                                                            The theoretical construct of the image schema was developed in Johnson 1987. The most detailed treatment of a single image schema is Cienki 1998, and there is empirical evidence for the existence of image schemata in Gibbs and Colston 1995. It has been claimed that image schemata form the basis for conceptual metaphors (Lakoff 1993) and that they underpin lexical categories (Lakoff 1987). Moreover, it is argued that they are foundational for conceptual development more generally (Mandler 2004). Clausner and Croft 1999 examines image schemata in relation to conceptual domains, while Palmer 1996 applies image schemata to cultural analysis. Hampe 2005 is an extremely useful collection that surveys perspectives on image schemata.

                                                                                                                                            • Cienki, Alan. 1998. Straight: An image schema and its metaphorical extensions. Cognitive Linguistics 9:107–149.

                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1515/cogl.1998.9.2.107Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                              A detailed and important study of a single image schema.

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                                                                                                                                              • Clausner, Timothy C., and William Croft. 1999. Domains and image schemas. Cognitive Linguistics 10:1–31.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1515/cogl.1999.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                Compares and contrasts the theoretical constructs of image schemata and domains.

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                                                                                                                                                • Gibbs, Raymond W., and Herbert L. Colston. 1995. The cognitive psychological reality of image schemas and their transformations. Cognitive Linguistics 6:347–378.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1515/cogl.1995.6.4.347Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  Provides empirical evidence for the existence of image schemata.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Hampe, Beate. 2005. From perception to meaning: Image schemas in cognitive linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1515/9783110197532Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    An influential collection of papers from leading researchers whose work bears on image schemata.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Johnson, Mark. 1987. The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                      The book that introduced and developed the notion of image schemata.

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                                                                                                                                                      • Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                        Applies image schema theory to lexical representation in a detailed analysis of the lexical category “over” (case study number 2).

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                                                                                                                                                        • Lakoff, George. 1993. The contemporary theory of metaphor. In Metaphor and thought. 2d ed. Edited by Andrew Ortony, 202–251. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                          This paper, among other things, argues that image schemata provide the basis for abstract metaphorical concepts, a procedure captured in Lakoff’s famous invariance principle.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Mandler, Jean Matter. 2004. The foundations of mind: Origins of conceptual thought. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                            A leading developmental psychologist presents her empirical research, which argues for image schemata as providing the bedrock of a child’s conceptual thought during the first year of life.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Palmer, Gary B. 1996. Toward a theory of cultural linguistics. Austin: Univ. of Texas Press.

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                                                                                                                                                              Develops an influential approach to linguistic anthropology informed by imagery and image schemata.

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                                                                                                                                                              Theory of Lexical Concepts and Cognitive Models

                                                                                                                                                              The basis for lexical concepts and cognitive models (LCCM) theory lies in the methodological approach to lexical representation pioneered in spatial semantics in Tyler and Evans 2003 and in the domain of time in Evans 2003. The theoretical architecture of LCCM theory is developed in Evans 2009, and its application to figurative language and abstract thought is worked out in Evans 2010.

                                                                                                                                                              • Evans, Vyvyan. 2003. The structure of time: Language, meaning, and temporal cognition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                                                                Develops a methodology for lexical semantic analysis in the domain of time that provides the basis for lexical analysis in LCCM theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Evans, Vyvyan. 2009. How words mean: Lexical concepts, cognitive models, and meaning construction. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                  Provides the definitive overview of the rationale for and architecture of LCCM theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Evans, Vyvyan. 2010. Figurative language understanding in LCCM theory. Cognitive Linguistics 21.4: 601–662.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1515/COGL.2010.020Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Applies LCCM theory to analyses of metaphor and metonymy.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Tyler, Andrea, and Vyvyan Evans. 2003. The semantics of English prepositions: Spatial scenes, embodied experience, and cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511486517Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      The definitive work deploying the principled polysemy lexical analysis methodology. This provides the basis for lexical concept identification methodology deployed in LCCM theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                      Mental Spaces Theory

                                                                                                                                                                      The definitive statement on mental spaces theory is Fauconnier 1994. Dinsmore 1987 argues for the role of mental spaces in reasoning. Cutrer 1994 applies mental spaces theory to tense and aspect, while Dancygier and Sweetser 2005 applies it to conditionals. Fauconnier 1997 develops mental spaces theory in anticipation of the development of conceptual integration theory. Mok, et al. 2004 is a computerized implementation of mental spaces theory. Oakley and Hougaard 2008 is a collection of important papers relating to mental spaces theory by leading proponents.

                                                                                                                                                                      Prototype Theory

                                                                                                                                                                      Prototype theory arose during the 1970s from experimental findings associated with Rosch 1978. It is famously developed and applied to language science in Lakoff 1987. Geeraerts 1997 applies prototype theory to lexicography, while Tyler and Evans 2001 is a detailed application to lexical semantics. Lakoff and Kövecses 1987 applies the notion of prototypes to metaphor, while Peirsman and Geeraerts 2006 applies it to metonymy. Wierzbicka 1990 provides a critique of the way prototypes are used in language studies.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Geeraerts, Dirk. 1997. Diachronic prototype semantics: A contribution to historical lexicology. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press

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                                                                                                                                                                        An important study that examines the role of prototypes in word change.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                          The classic book that develops and applies prototype theory to language and thought.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Lakoff, George, and Zoltán Kövecses. 1987. The cognitive model of anger inherent in American English. In Cultural models in language and thought. Edited by Dorothy C. Holland and Naomi Quinn, 195–221. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                            The seminal application of prototypes to conceptual metaphor.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Peirsman, Yves, and Dirk Geeraerts. 2006. Metonymy as a prototypical category. Cognitive Linguistics 17.3: 269–316.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1515/COG.2006.007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              This paper develops a prototype perspective on metonymy, which is argued to be structured in terms of contiguity.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Rosch, Eleanor. 1978. Principles of categorization. In Cognition and categorization. Edited by Eleanor Rosch and Barbara B. Lloyd, 27–48. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                                                                                An influential review article covering much of Rosch’s work in relation to prototypes and a revision to her previous development of prototype theory.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Tyler, Andrea, and Vyvyan Evans. 2001. Reconsidering prepositional polysemy networks: The case of “over.” Language 77.4: 724–765.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1353/lan.2001.0250Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  An influential study in spatial semantics deploying the notion of a prototype.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1990. Prototypes save: On the uses and abuses of the notion of “prototype” in linguistics and related fields. In Meanings and prototypes: Studies in linguistic categorization. Edited by Savas Tsohatzidis, 347–367. London: Routledge.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    A critique of the use of the notion of prototypes in linguistic analysis and theory construction.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Usage-Based Approaches to Language Learning

                                                                                                                                                                                    Usage-based approaches to language learning have focused on the way mental grammar comes to be organized and structured (Langacker 2000) and the way language is acquired (Tomasello 2003). In terms of the former, Bybee 2006 provides evidence for the role of frequency, while Bybee and Hopper 2001 is an important collection of papers in this regard. Bybee 2010 presents a synthesis of the state of the art. Barlow and Kemmer 2000 is an influential collection relating to more general issues concerning mental grammar and usage. In terms of language acquisition, Langacker 2009 is a theoretical treatment, while Lieven, et al. 2003 is a classic case study in favor of a usage-based approach to first-language acquisition. Dąbrowska 2005 presents an influential review of the cognitive and neurological constraints on usage-based perspectives of grammar.

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Barlow, Michael, and Suzanne Kemmer. 2000. Usage-based models of language. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      An influential collection of papers by leading proponents of usage-based approaches to language learning.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bybee, Joan L. 2006. From usage to grammar: The mind’s response to repetition. Language 8:711–733.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1353/lan.2006.0186Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Provides evidence for the role of frequency in the development of mental grammar.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bybee, Joan L. 2010. Language, usage, and cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Examines the dynamic usage-based processes that give rise to mental representation of language.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bybee, Joan L., and Paul J. Hopper, eds. 2001. Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            An influential collected volume concerning the role of frequency on grammatical organization and structure.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dąbrowska, Ewa. 2005. Language, mind, and brain: Some psychological and neurological constraints on theories of grammar. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Examines psychological and cognitive issues relating to the acquisition and structure of linguistic representation, adopting a broadly usage-based perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Langacker, Ronald W. 2000. A dynamic usage-based model. In Usage-based models of language. Edited by Michael Barlow and Suzanne Kemmer, 1–63. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Langacker provides a detailed overview of the cognitive grammar usage-based model of language.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Langacker, Ronald W. 2009. A dynamic view of usage and language acquisition. Cognitive Linguistics 20.3: 627–640.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1515/COGL.2009.027Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  An important theoretical exposition of a usage-based approach to language acquisition from a cognitive grammar perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lieven, Elena, Heike Behrens, Jennifer Speares, and Michael Tomasello. 2003. Early syntactic creativity: A usage-based approach. Journal of Child Language 30:333–370.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    A seminal study demonstrating the role of creativity in language acquisition.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Tomasello, Michael. 2003. Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      The definitive account of the role of language use and general cognitive abilities in the acquisition of language.

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