Linguistics Aphasia
by
Susan Edwards, Christos Salis
  • LAST MODIFIED: 29 September 2015
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0052

Introduction

Aphasia is a language disorder acquired subsequent to brain damage that affects production and understanding of spoken and written language in varying degrees and patterns associated with the size and site of the lesion (see Symptoms and Neurological Correlates). Written and online examples of aphasic speech are available (see Aphasic Language Datasets). Brain damage is usually in the left cerebral cortex, with the left temporal and frontal lobes being especially vulnerable (see Symptoms and Neurological Correlates). Profiles of deficits vary in the extent that levels of language, phonology (see Phonemic and Phonetic Characteristics), lexis (see Nouns, Verbs, Closed-Class Words), and syntax (see Sentence Comprehension and Sentence Production) are involved, in varying degrees and patterns, although lexical access problems are found in most types of aphasia. These deficits give rise to problems in connected speech and conversation (see Discourse). Variations in the types of language deficit found in aphasia led to the notion of syndromes and the search for associations between types of language deficits and sites of lesion (see Historical Overviews). Two well-described syndromes are Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia. Broca’s aphasia is characterized by syntactic deficits in output but with relatively retained understanding of language. Most experimental research has been in this type of aphasia. In Wernicke’s aphasia, understanding is impaired and lexical semantics are compromised, whereas syntax is relatively intact. Aphasia is found in all languages (see Across Languages) and in children who have passed the early stages of language development and subsequently have impaired language following brain damage.

General Overviews and Textbooks

The overviews and tests listed here are suitable for undergraduate students or early stage researchers interested in aphasia. Caplan 1996, although published some time ago, still provides an excellent overview of psycholinguistic aphasia at the time of publication. Goodglass 1993 is a classic text from an aphasia lab that has had considerable influence on research and clinical work in aphasia (see Developments in the 20th and 21st Centuries). Whitworth, et al. 2014 provides an introduction to understanding the wide variety and complexity of aphasic symptoms and deficits. The book covers all modalities of language (reading, writing, speaking, understanding) and presents a cognitive neuropsychological approach to assessment and treatment. Helm-Estabrooks, et al. 2014 provides a comprehensive overview of assessment and treatment approaches, targeted at speech and language therapists and other clinicians. This third edition includes a DVD with clinical materials and example videos. Hillis 2015 provides an edited collection of papers from researchers working in different disciplines and approaching aphasia from different perspectives (cognitive neuropsychology, linguistics, neurology, neuroimaging, and speech and language therapy). Different modalities of language are covered with a focus on specific tasks (e.g., reading, understanding meaning, naming). LaPointe 2011 provides broad coverage that includes both specific symptoms and deficits, as well as contemporary approaches that include cultural, quality of life, and treatment concerns. Paquier and van Dongen 1993 describes acquired aphasia in children who, previous to brain damage, were exhibiting normal language development. Further papers on this topic are in the same issue of the journal in which this article appears.

  • Caplan, David. 1996. Language, structure, processing, and disorders. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

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    This is an informative text on aphasia, written for students from all educational backgrounds. Caplan explains models and theoretical concepts used in the field. He links selected linguistic theories and data from experimental psycholinguistic and online brain studies to aphasic disorders. A good example of interdisciplinary aphasic research.

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    • Goodglass, Harold. 1993. Understanding aphasia. San Diego, CA: Academic.

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      Written by one of the 20th-century giants of aphasia, the text provides descriptions of aphasic syndromes that were widely adopted, despite limitations, as well as a historical context. Suitable for undergraduates and newcomers to the field.

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      • Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy, Martin L. Albert, and Marjorie Nicholas. 2014. Manual of aphasia and aphasia therapy. 3d ed. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

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        A comprehensive introduction to aphasia for clinicians and those interested in diagnosis and treatment. For undergraduates and other newcomers to the field.

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        • Hillis, Argye E., ed. 2015. The handbook of adult language disorders. 2d ed. New York: Psychology Press.

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          Papers by researchers and experts on various acquired language problems found in or associated with aphasia. Highly recommended for detailed coverage of specific cognitive and language deficits that arise in aphasia.

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          • laPointe, Leonard L., ed. 2011. Aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders. 4th ed. New York: Thieme.

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            A overview split into three sections. The first provides a foundation in aphasia (e.g., brain anatomy, aphasia theory and models, quality of life, multilingualism and aphasia); the second, an overview of assessment and treatment focusing on specific skills and treatment methods (e.g., word retrieval, reading and writing, assistive technology); and the third includes related disorders (e.g., dementia, traumatic brain injury). Highly recommended for a solid background to aphasia.

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            • Paquier, Phillippe, and Hugh van Dongen. 1993. Current trends in acquired childhood aphasia. Aphasiology 7.5: 421–440.

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              The authors discuss the rare cases of aphasia acquired in childhood, including when language disorders are associated with cerebral seizures. The journal issue in which this article appears contains other papers on childhood aphasia, and Paquier’s introduction to the issue provides a context for the topic.

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              • Whitworth, Anne, Janet Webster, and David Howard. 2014. A cognitive neuropsychological approach to assessment and intervention in aphasia: A clinician’s guide. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

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                A detailed presentation of how language and cognition can be impaired in aphasia, and a model for how to assess and understand observed deficits. Most useful for students in neuropsychology or speech and language therapy who want to assess and treat aphasia.

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                Reference Resources

                The study of aphasia embraces neurology, linguistics, psychology, and clinical speech-language sciences, and this is reflected in the diverse publications and journals that carry useful papers. Few reference texts are therefore available. Malmkjaer 2010 provides a short introduction for those with no knowledge of the subject and includes descriptions of the most widely recognized syndromes. Kent 2004, although called an encyclopedia, is a collection of papers addressing a wide range of speech and language disorders, including chapters about aphasia.

                • Kent, Raymond D., ed. 2004. The MIT encyclopedia of communication disorders. Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT.

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                  This massive reference book has a number of entries that present current thinking on the nature and classification of language disorders in aphasia. The text provides a balanced view of aphasia research in the 21st century. Pages 243–269 are especially relevant.

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                  • Malmkjaer, Kirsten, ed. 2010. The Routledge linguistics encyclopaedia. 3d ed. London and New York: Routledge.

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                    Provides a short description of aphasic conditions based largely on the Goodglass model (pp. 15–18). Suitable for undergraduate students and those new to the subject.

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                    Aphasic Language Datasets

                    Electronically accessed datasets and resources are at AphasiaBank, CAVA, PATSy, MAPPD, and Better Conversations in Aphasia. Menn and Obler 1990 contains textual datasets especially useful for cross-linguistic comparisons (see Across Languages). These databases provide materials that would otherwise be difficult to access because of the difficulty of locating willing participants and dealing with lengthy and complex ethical procedures. The datasets available appeal mainly to students, clinicians, and researchers who wish to gain hands-on experience with data on aphasic language. Access is usually free, although registration is required, but some may charge a subscription fee.

                    • AphasiaBank.

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                      The goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a shared database of multimedia interactions for studying communication in aphasia. An extensive resource for beginners and more-experienced researchers. Registration is required for this free service. The AphasiaBank has been developed by Brian MacWhinney and Audrey Holland.

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                      • Better Conversations in Aphasia.

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                        This is a free learning resource that provides training in how to complete conversation therapy for couples where one partner has aphasia. It is included here as it also provides an excellent introduction to aphasia and how it affects everyday communication. The course includes video materials and example worksheets, as well as being available in a format that is “aphasia friendly,” rather than just targeted at nonaphasic individuals.

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                        • CAVA.

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                          This video archive of interactions would appeal primarily to those interested in conversation analysis of aphasic interactions. Contains datasets from not only aphasia but also other disorders of communication. Registration is required.

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                          • MAPPD.

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                            MAPPD stands for Moss Aphasia Psycholinguistics Project Database. It is an online, searchable database of behavioral data from a large sample of individuals with aphasia (over 170 individuals). The main data is performance on a picture-naming task (the Philadelphia Naming Test), which has been phonetically transcribed and coded for error type (e.g., semantic error, phonological error). Limited background information for each individual is also included. An extremely useful dataset for anyone wanting to explore picture-naming performance in aphasia.

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                            • Menn, Lise, and Loraine K. Obler, eds. 1990. Agrammatic aphasia: A cross-language narrative sourcebook. 3 vols. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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                              This resource covers a broad spectrum of narrative language samples of people with aphasia from different languages and language families. At the time of publication, cross-linguistic datasets were scarce. This resource is still a key point of reference. With an accessible introduction, suitable for undergraduates.

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                              • PATSy.

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                                PATSy stands for Patient Assessment and Training System. It is intended primarily for health-care professionals (speech-language pathologists, neuropsychologists) as a clinical training tool but would also appeal to users in other disciplines. Some of the materials are dated but still very useful. Subscription is required for this service, which is available only to residents of the United Kingdom and Ireland.

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                                Symptoms and Neurological Correlates

                                There is a long-running debate over whether specific aphasic subtypes (e.g., Broca’s aphasia, Wernicke’s aphasia) correspond to specific patterns of brain damage. This is because individuals with aphasia are highly heterogeneous in the symptoms they present with, their relative severity of, and the location and extent of their brain lesions. See Meinzer, et al. 2011 and Thompson 2005 for overviews of the brain-language relationship in aphasia and the role of neuroimaging. Lesion-symptom mapping studies have become much more common in the last ten years. There are significant barriers to overcome in completing reliable analysis of brain imaging data. Crinion, et al. 2013 presents a summary of technical challenges and new approaches to accurately establishing the extent of brain lesions in poststroke aphasia. Willmes and Poeck 1993 finds an imperfect fit between brain lesion and aphasia type. The field is now moving toward mapping more specific language processes onto brain lesions. Butler, et al. 2014 compares lesions when individuals are grouped by subtype (e.g., Broca’s, Wernicke’s) versus specific processes (phonology, semantics, and cognition). They found that specific skills provided a better mapping onto distinct lesion sites than the aphasia type. In a similar vein, Kemmerer, et al. 2012 presents a large-scale lesion-symptom mapping analysis for production and comprehension of action words (verbs); Schwartz, et al. 2012 presents lesion-symptom maps for phonological errors in picture naming. A recent theoretical account argues that language comprehension is governed by two processing “streams” in the brain, and that this can account for particular symptom profiles in aphasia (Hickok and Poeppel 2007). The relationship between activity in the right and left brain hemispheres is becoming increasingly important in understanding how people recover language function poststroke; see Anglade, et al. 2014 for a review.

                                • Anglade, Carole, Alexander Thiel, and Ana I. Ansaldo. 2014. The complementary role of the cerebral hemispheres in recovery from aphasia after stroke: A critical review of literature. Brain Injury 28.2: 138–145.

                                  DOI: 10.3109/02699052.2013.859734Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                  A systematic review of forty-two articles. The involvement of the right hemisphere in recovering language function after a left hemisphere stroke is evaluated. Factors are identified that influence whether right hemisphere involvements contribute to language recovery or not. Available online via subscription or purchase.

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                                  • Butler, Rebecca A., Matthew A. L. Ralph, and Anna M. Woollams. 2014. Capturing multidimensionality in stroke aphasia: Mapping principal behavioural components to neural structures. Brain 137.12: 3248–3266.

                                    DOI: 10.1093/brain/awu286Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                    A comparison of lesion-symptom mapping approaches using traditional aphasia type (e.g., Broca’s versus Wernicke’s) and an analysis that captures behavioral performance across a set of tasks (principal components analysis) for a group of thirty-one individuals with aphasia poststroke. Tasks were summarized into three groups—phonology, semantics, and cognition. These three groups of tasks mapped onto distinct lesion sites, aphasia type did not. Available online.

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                                    • Crinion, Jenny, Audrey L. Holland, David A. Copland, Cynthia K. Thompson, and Argye E. Hillis. 2013. Neuroimaging in aphasia treatment research: Quantifying brain lesions after stroke. Neuroimage 73:208–214.

                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.07.044Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                      Article arising from a workshop that addressed advances in neuroimaging and how they apply to aphasia research. The article discusses different methods for detailing the character and extent of brain lesions poststroke, and provides a set of guidelines for selecting which methods to use. Other papers from the same edition of the journal detail the application of neuroimaging for other areas of research, for example, capturing change due to therapy. Available online open access.

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                                      • Hickok, Gregory, and David Poeppel. 2007. The cortical organization of speech processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 8.5: 393–402.

                                        DOI: 10.1038/nrn2113Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                        A theoretical model that separates language comprehension (speech processing) into two streams in the brain—dorsal and ventral. The dorsal stream roughly goes from the back of the brain, “over the top,” to the frontal regions, whereas the ventral stream roughly goes from the back of the brain, “under the bottom,” to frontal and temporal regions. See other papers by the same authors for a more extensive discussion of this theory. This model has become widely influential in recent years. PDF available from Rutgers or University of California San Francisco.

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                                        • Kemmerer, David, David Rudrauf, Ken Manzel, and Daniel Tranel. 2012. Behavioral patterns and lesion sites associated with impaired processing of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions. Cortex 48.7: 826–848.

                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.11.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                          A large group of 226 individuals with aphasia poststroke completed a set of six tasks (naming, word-picture matching, word attribute judgment, word comparison, picture attribute, and picture comparison) that all used the same set of action words (i.e., verbs). Lesion-symptom maps identified which brain regions are critical for the successful processing of action words across the different tasks. This paper is notable for using a number of different tasks that target the same set of words, rather than using a single task (e.g., picture naming) or widely diverse tasks. Available online from Purdue University or University of Southern California.

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                                          • Meinzer, Marcus, Stacy Harnish, Tim Conway, and Bruce Crosson. 2011. Recent developments in functional and structural imaging of aphasia recovery after stroke. Aphasiology 25.3: 271–290.

                                            DOI: 10.1080/02687038.2010.530672Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                            This article provides a review of studies investigating the language-brain relationship in aphasia, using a variety of functional and structural imaging techniques. Most studies investigate single-word processing, but one study on syntactic processing is included, as are studies examining neural changes following treatment. Postgraduate level. Available online through subscription or purchase.

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                                            • Schwartz, Myrna F., Olufunsho Faseyitan, Junghoon Kim, and H. Branch Coslett. 2012. The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming. Brain 135.12: 3799–3814.

                                              DOI: 10.1093/brain/aws300Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                              Large-scale lesion-symptom mapping study, relating incidence of phonological errors in picture naming to the site and extent of grey matter brain lesions. Phonological and semantic errors were compared and found to map onto distinct patterns of brain lesions. Available online via subscription or purchase.

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                                              • Thompson, Cynthia K. 2005. Functional neuroimaging: Applications for studying aphasia. In Aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders. 3d ed. Edited by Leonard L. laPointe, 19–38. New York: Thieme.

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                                                An accessible state-of-the-art overview.

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                                                • Willmes, Klaus, and Klaus Poeck. 1993. To what extent can aphasic syndromes be localized? Brain 116.6: 1527–1540.

                                                  DOI: 10.1093/brain/116.6.1527Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                  In a retrospective study of 221 aphasic patients, the association between site of lesion (using computed tomography [CT] scans) and type of aphasia (based on the Aachen Aphasia Test) was examined and found to be equivocal, although posterior lesions were highly associated with Wernicke’s aphasia. Available online by subscription.

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                                                  Historical Overviews

                                                  Historical overviews, such as Howard and Hatfield 1987 and Tesak and Code 2008, provide introductions to the early work of two neurosurgeons, Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke, who, in the middle of the 19th century, observed a relationship between brain lesions within the left cerebral cortex and acquired language deficits. Their observations, based on postmortem examinations, laid the foundations for the study of aphasia for the next 160 years. Basso 2003 includes the early history as well as more-recent developments in the field. Tesak and Code 2008 emphasizes the development of the study of Broca’s aphasia (agrammatism). A section in Grodzinsky and Amunts 2006 offers a historical perspective, with original papers from a number of key pioneers in aphasiology, material that students might find hard to locate.

                                                  • Basso, Anna. 2003. Aphasia and its therapy. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

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                                                    Chapters 1–3 provide some historical background to early studies of aphasia. These provide a historical context for those new to the field.

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                                                    • Grodzinsky, Yosef, and Katrin Amunts, eds. 2006. Broca’s region. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                      DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177640.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                      Includes a collection of original papers by many of the founding fathers of modern aphasiology (Broca, Lichtheim, John Hughlings Jackson, Norman Geschwind, Roman Jakobson, and Mohr), as well as papers that represent developments in the 21st century.

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                                                      • Howard, David, and Frances M. Hatfield. 1987. Aphasia therapy: Historical and contemporary issues. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                        An old but accessible text for undergraduates that outlines the history until the middle of the 20th century. It also discusses more-recent developments in the history of aphasia.

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                                                        • Tesak, Juergen, and Chris Code. 2008. Milestones in the history of aphasia: Theories and protagonists. Brain damage, behaviour, and cognition. Hove, UK, and New York: Psychology.

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                                                          A brief history with emphasis on Broca’s aphasia.

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                                                          19th Century

                                                          Although Paul Broca, in his 1865 publication of observations of a language disorder and assumed site of lesion based on autopsy results, is credited with being the first to note that “we speak with the left side of the brain,” some claim that Marc Dax had already made this observation, a debate discussed in Buckingham 2006. Original papers by many of the leading 19th- and early-20th-century writers on aphasia are in Grodzinsky and Amunts 2006 (cited under Historical Overviews). Harris 1991 gives a more complex view of early work in the relationship between damage in the left cortical regions and subsequent language deficits. Eggert 1977 is a useful translation of and commentary on Carl Wernicke’s 1874 (Der aphasische Symptomencomplex, eine psychologische Studie auf anatomischer Basis, Wrocław, Poland: Cohn and Weigert) descriptions of ten patients who, although they were able to talk fluently and could hear normally, had problems conveying meaning and problems with understanding. The lengthy descriptions suggest that not many of these patients had what would now be recognized as Wernicke’s aphasia. Edwards 2005 includes a further discussion of Wernicke’s work and considers to what extent these patients would be described as fluent aphasic speakers in the early 21st century.

                                                          • Buckingham, Hugh W. 2006. The Marc Dax (1770–1837)/Paul Broca (1824–1880) controversy over priority in science. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 20.7–8: 613–619.

                                                            DOI: 10.1080/02699200500266703Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                            Discusses the debate concerning whether Broca’s 1865 paper was the first to claim that the language faculty is in the left cortical lobe. Available online by subscription.

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                                                            • Edwards, Susan. 2005. Fluent aphasia: Identification and classic descriptions. In Fluent aphasia. By Susan Edwards, 5–31. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                              Outlines Wernicke’s contribution to the study of aphasia and gives a brief overview of some 20th-century work. Suitable for undergraduate students.

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                                                              • Eggert, Gertrude H. 1977. Wernicke’s works on aphasia: A sourcebook and review. Janua Linguarum: Series Maior. The Hague and New York: Mouton.

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                                                                An accessible translation of and commentary on Wernicke’s seminal description of ten cases.

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                                                                • Harris, Lauren Julius. 1991. Cerebral control for speech in right-handers and left-handers: An analysis of the views of Paul Broca, his contemporaries, and his successors. Brain and Language 40.1: 1–50.

                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/0093-934X(91)90115-HSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                  This article presents a reconsideration of Broca’s views of the relationship between handedness, language, and neural correlates in light of Broca’s publications, contemporary scientific views, subsequent claims on the matter, and current knowledge of brain-language relationships. Provides context for one of the most important claims about aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                  Developments in the 20th and 21st Centuries

                                                                  Following major wars, clinical neurologists, such as Head and John Hughlings Jackson in London and Alexander Luria in Moscow (see Historical Overviews), started to record their assessments of language deficit in brain-injured patients. Influenced by the emergence of psychometric tests, aphasia assessments were developed by clinical psychologists, enabling researchers to use a common tool. In the mid-20th century the descriptions and clinical assessment of syndromes of Harold Goodglass and Edith Kaplan in 1972 became influential, and although others were proposed, no definitive schema of syndromes emerged (Goodglass, et al. 2001). Considerable debate about the integrity of syndromes and defining characteristics grew and continues in various forms. Alfredo Ardila (Ardila 2010) is among a host of writers who argue that the classical descriptors fail. Poeppel and Hickok 2004 suggests a new way of looking at the classification of aphasia in light of neuroanatomical and test data. Westbury 2010 provides an excellent overview and critique of how the classical descriptors used to establish aphasia types fail, and presents an alternative method for establishing what underlying causes there might be for particular aphasia symptoms. The increasing access to various types of technology (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] and structural magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] brain scanning, tracking of eye movement, event-related potential [ERP]) led to considerable progress in understanding both the linguistic nature of aphasia and the neurological correlates. See the section on Symptoms and Neurological Correlates. However, group studies based on syndromes continued, and claims about the theoretical nature of language features, especially agrammatism; Drai and Grodzinsky 2006 and the following commentaries in the same journal issue are examples of the debates of this time. Friedmann 2006 provides an excellent exposition to a rich field that links aphasic syntactic deficits to linguistic theories. Goodglass and Wingfield 1997 is an example of the multitude of papers on lexical deficits, which are ubiquitous in aphasia studies (see Nouns).

                                                                  • Ardila, Alfredo. 2010. A proposed reinterpretation and reclassification of aphasic syndromes. Aphasiology 24.3: 363–394.

                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/02687030802553704Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                    Classical considerations of modularity of language (grammar and lexis) and of the different ways articulatory control is damaged in aphasia, and how this might inform our understanding of aphasia types. This forum paper is followed by commentaries by Hugh W. Buckingham, Andrew Kertesz, and Jane Marshall. A useful paper that links past and present thoughts on aphasia classification. Available online by subscription.

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                                                                    • Drai, Dan, and Yosef Grodzinsky. 2006. A new empirical angle on the variability debate: Quantitative neurosyntactic analyses of a large data set from Broca’s aphasia. Brain and Language 76.2: 117–128.

                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2004.10.016Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                      Data are presented to support the claim that there is a characteristic pattern to sentence comprehension deficits in Broca’s (or agrammatic) aphasia. This lead article is important to the debate about syndromes, the relationship between lesion and symptoms, and theoretical accounts of aphasic linguistic behavior. Commentaries are in the same issue of Brain and Language.

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                                                                      • Friedmann, Naama. 2006. Speech production in Broca’s agrammatic aphasia: Syntactic tree pruning. In Broca’s region. Edited by Yosef Grodzinsky and Katrin Amunts, 63–82. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

                                                                        DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177640.001.0001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                        Friedmann’s elegant exposition of a theoretical account that links patterns of impoverished grammar in agrammatism to specific lesion loci in the syntactic tree. She reviews her work and other seminal studies that provide data linking well-described syntactic deficits to established theoretical frameworks in addition to considering language-brain connections.

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                                                                        • Goodglass, Harold, Edith Kaplan, and Barbara Barresi. 2001. The assessment of aphasia and related disorders. 3d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.

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                                                                          Originally written by two eminent aphasiologists who worked together for many years, this text provides descriptions of aphasic syndromes and a guide to assessment. Regarded by many as a standard text, although the usefulness of syndromes is widely challenged. Also, this third edition with Barresi has added information on further psycholinguistic data, referencing experimental work. Originally published in 1972.

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                                                                          • Goodglass, Harold, and Arthur Wingfield. 1997. Word finding deficits in aphasia: Brain-behavior relations and clinical symptomology. In Anomia: Neuroanatomical and cognitive correlates. Edited by Harold Goodglass and Arthur Wingfield, 3–27. Foundations of Neuropsychology. San Diego, CA: Academic.

                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/B978-012289685-9/50002-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                            One of the many useful chapters on lexical accessing in aphasia that provide an accessible introduction to this busy field of research. Also included in this text are chapters on models of lexical representation and access, modality-specific deficits (e.g., deficits in spoken but not written naming), and difficulties in proper noun retrieval.

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                                                                            • Poeppel, David, and Gregory Hickok. 2004. Towards a new functional anatomy of language. Cognition 92:1–12.

                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2003.11.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                              The authors attempt to reconcile language function with neuroanatomy, taking into account task effects on language as tested in experiments. They make a distinction between speech production, which they assume requires bilateral cortical involvement, and processing of speech, which depends on left hemispheric activity. A good paper for initiating debate. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                              • Westbury, Chris. 2010. Assessing language impairment in aphasia: Going beyond pencils and paper in the computer age. Mental Lexicon 5.3: 300–323.

                                                                                DOI: 10.1075/ml.5.3.03wesSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                An excellent and clearly written article that focuses on the challenges in aphasia assessment, and how classical approaches have failed to provide real predictive power. A history of aphasia assessment is presented, followed by a critique and recommendation to use better-designed tasks, larger sets of words, and a larger number of individuals to uncover underlying patterns.

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                                                                                Primary Progressive Aphasia

                                                                                Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a progressive decline of language. PPA is a generic term that encompasses several subtypes or syndromes (Gorno-Tempini, et al. 2011). A crucial difference between PPA and the other forms of aphasia is the progressive nature of the disorder. This means that linguistic skills in those affected by PPA will gradually worsen with time, unlike nonprogressive aphasia, which is a stable disorder. Rohrer, et al. 2008 provides an accessible description of language profiles across the different kinds of PPA and how this can be assessed. The concept of fluent vs. nonfluent speech that characterizes nonprogressive aphasia is relevant in PPA as shown in Thompson, et al. 1997. Rohrer, et al. 2012 investigates prosodic disturbances in PPA. Thompson and Mack 2014 provides an overview of a range of linguistic impairments in PPA.

                                                                                • Gorno-Tempini, Maria L., Argye E. Hillis, Sandra Weintraub, et al. 2011. Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants. Neurology 76:1006–1014.

                                                                                  DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821103e6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                  An accessible overview of the main linguistic and behavioral characteristics of PPA subtypes, written by eminent neurologist and neuropsychologists. The tabular format of key information provides a clear summary of the language characteristics of PPA.

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                                                                                  • Rohrer, Jonathan D., William D. Knight, Jane E. Warren, Nick C. Fox, Martin N. Rossor, and Jason D. Warren. 2008. Word-finding difficulty: A clinical analysis of the progressive aphasias. Brain 31:8–38.

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                                                                                    An accessible paper aimed at clinicians. It describes how the different progressive aphasias can be diagnosed using characteristic patterns and errors produced during different tasks (e.g., spontaneous speech, naming, single word and sentence comprehension, repetition). The introduction provides a very useful comparison and overview of progressive aphasias and chronic/stroke-related aphasias, as well as areas of the brain that are typically affected.

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                                                                                    • Rohrer, Jonathan D., Disa Sauter, Sophie Scott, Martin N. Rossor, and Jason D. Warren. 2012. Receptive prosody in nonfluent primary progressive aphasias. Cortex 48.3: 308–316.

                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.09.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                      A rare study of receptive prosodic disturbance in nonfluent PPA. Prosodic aspects of aphasia are discussed in the prosody section. The study focuses on acoustic, linguistic, and emotional functions of prosody from a neurological stance. Some prior knowledge of brain anatomy is required, but the linguistic aspects are more accessible.

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                                                                                      • Thompson, Cynthia K., Kirrie J. Ballard, Mary E. Tait, Sandra Weintraub, and Marek-Marsel Mesulam. 1997. Patterns of language decline in non-fluent primary progressive aphasia. Aphasiology 11:297–321.

                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/02687039708248473Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                        A comprehensive and detailed study of speech and language skills in four individuals with nonfluent PPA. The information the authors provide was collected over eleven years. The authors also provide a comparison with nonfluent aphasic speakers who present with nonprogressive aphasia. The linguistic analyses should be familiar to undergraduate students of linguistics. This makes the text fairly easy to follow.

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                                                                                        • Thompson, Cynthia K., and Jennifer E. Mack. 2014. Grammatical impairments in PPA. Aphasiology 28.8–9: 1018–1037.

                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/02687038.2014.912744Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                          A state-of-the-art overview focusing on grammatical deficits in PPA. The authors provide a thorough definition of grammatical impairment that should be understandable by undergraduates. The authors also discuss a number of studies of grammar in PPA in different levels of linguistic description, for example, morphology and functional categories (see also related sections on Closed-Class Words, Sentence Comprehension, and Sentence Production).

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                                                                                          Across Languages

                                                                                          Most people in the world speak more than one language, and studies of aphasia across different languages may challenge theories of aphasia (which are often based on English) and contribute to new explanations of aphasic phenomena, especially aspects of general cognitive processes such as executive control/functioning and syntactic limitations. Two examples of such work are Adrover-Roig, et al. 2011, investigating language attrition and limitations in cognitive control; and Burchert, et al. 2008, exploring the fit of two theoretical explanations of syntactic limitations to German agrammatic data. Illustrative publications from three eminent researchers in aphasia across languages are Bates and Wulfeck 1989, Paradis 2004, and Menn and Obler 1990. As well as publishing a rich source of aphasic data from a variety of languages, these researchers consider the cognitive and linguistic consequences as well as the theoretical underpinnings and cortical representation of language in bi- and multilingual aphasic speakers. The edited text in Goral and Obler 2012 offers a rich source of studies and opinions on research into multilingual aspects of aphasia. The journal Aphasiology has devoted an issue to aphasia in bilingual speakers.

                                                                                          • Adrover-Roig, Daniel, Nekane Galparsoro-Izagirre, Karine Marcotte, Perrine Ferré, Maximiliano A. Wilson, and Ana Inés Ansaldo. 2011. Impaired L1 and executive control after left basal ganglia damage in a bilingual Basque-Spanish person with aphasia. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 25.6–7: 480–498.

                                                                                            DOI: 10.3109/02699206.2011.563338Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                            A case study of a Basque-Spanish aphasic speaker, the role of executive functions in linguistic control. The person with aphasia experienced language attrition after the onset of aphasia. This study also describes the use of Bilingual Aphasia Test, a popular assessment tool in bilingual aphasia research.

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                                                                                            • Bates, Elizabeth, and Beverley Wulfeck. 1989. Cross linguistic studies of aphasia. In The crosslinguistic study of sentence processing. Edited by Brian MacWhinney and Elizabeth Bates, 328–371. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

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                                                                                              This chapter summarizes a number of findings and issues when one compares sentence-processing differences and similarities across languages; well written and easy to follow.

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                                                                                              • Burchert, Frank, Nadine Meissner, and Ria De Bleser. 2008. Production of non-canonical sentences in agrammatic aphasia: Limits in representation or rule application? Brain and Language 104.2: 170–179.

                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2007.06.004Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                The authors investigate the validity of two competing explanations for agrammatic phenomena, loss of representation and diminished rule application, in an experimental study using participants who are German speakers with agrammatism. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                • Goral, Mira, and Loraine K. Obler, eds. 2012. Aspects of multilingual aphasia. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

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                                                                                                  The chapters of this edited book are written by eminent authors in bilingual and multilingual aphasia. An all-round introduction to the main topics of research and debates in the field of multilingual aphasia, covering linguistic and some paralinguistic issues. The format of this text makes it accessible for undergraduates and other users who would want to obtain a general picture of the issues in this specialist field and follow up on specific issues.

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                                                                                                  • Menn, Lisa, and Loraine K. Obler, eds. 1990. Agrammatic aphasia: A cross-language narrative sourcebook. 3 vols. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

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                                                                                                    Volume 1 contains descriptions and theoretical considerations about the nature of agrammatism, linguistic properties, and neurological underpinnings. A collection of papers on agrammatism in various languages make up Volume 2, and data in the form of samples of aphasic speech from the fourteen languages studied are in Volume 3.

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                                                                                                    • Paradis, Michel. 2004. A neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. Studies in Bilingualism 18. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1075/sibil.18Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                      Paradis discusses representation, organization, and processing of two or more languages in bi- and multilingual speakers. He incorporates selected linguistic theories and relevant neurological findings. This is suitable for undergraduates and newcomers to the field of bilingualism and aphasia.

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                                                                                                      • Weekes, Brendan, ed. 2010. Special issue: Issues in bilingual aphasia. Aphasiology 24.2.

                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/02687030902958274Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                        A series of papers covering clinical and experimental work that provide a snapshot of late-20th- and early-21st-century work. Accessible for undergraduates.

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                                                                                                        Phonemic and Phonetic Characteristics

                                                                                                        The breakdown of phonology in aphasia has been an area of intensive research for several decades. Blumstein 1973 is an excellent starting point in modern research into phonological abilities of aphasic speakers. Buckingham 1992 discusses phonological abilities in conduction aphasia, using theoretical frameworks, whereas Marshall 2006 reviews studies of phonological (and lexical) production in jargon aphasia, a type of aphasia characterized by severe deficit in output phonology. Nespoulous and Villiard 1990 bring together several dominant perspectives and extensive reviews of the literature on phonology (and also morphology) until 1990. In a review of neuroimaging findings (using positron emission tomography [PET]), Poeppel 1996 offers critical insights into the neural representation of phonology in people with aphasia. Subtle phonetic differences have also emerged with sophisticated acoustic and instrumental analyses of speech patterns in aphasia. Bose and van Lieshout 2008; Buchwald, et al. 2007; and Wood, et al. 2011 use high-tech articulatory imaging techniques and acoustic analyses to elucidate the phonetic abilities in aphasia and show how these interact with phonology.

                                                                                                        • Blumstein, Sheila E. 1973. A phonological investigation of aphasic speech. Janua Linguarum: Series Minor. The Hague: Mouton.

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                                                                                                          A classic experimental investigation by a pioneer in the field of phonological disorders in aphasia. A revision of the author’s doctoral thesis. A good starting point for those interested in aphasic phonology.

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                                                                                                          • Bose, Arpita, and Pascal van Lieshout. 2008. Effects of utterance length on lip kinematics in aphasia. Brain and Language 106:4–14.

                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2008.03.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                            A detailed analysis of lip movement data using electromagnetic articulography instrumentation addressing the issue of speech motor control in aphasia.

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                                                                                                            • Buchwald, Adam, Brenda Rapp, and Maureen Stone. 2007. Insertion of discrete phonological units: An ultrasound investigation of aphasic speech. Language and Cognitive Processes 22.6: 910–948.

                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/01690960701273532Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                              An articulatory and acoustic study of the phonology-phonetics interface, using ultrasound, a new method of investigating sound level deficits in aphasia.

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                                                                                                              • Buckingham, Hugh W. 1992. Phonological production deficits in conduction aphasia. In Conduction aphasia. Edited by Susan E. Kohn, 77–116. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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                                                                                                                This chapter, which is suitable for undergraduates, offers a succinct theoretical introduction to phonological impairment in conduction aphasia. Although the focus is on conduction aphasia, the ideas and theoretical frameworks are applicable to other types of aphasia.

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                                                                                                                • Marshall, Jane. 2006. Jargon aphasia: What have we learned? Aphasiology 20.5: 387–410.

                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/02687030500489946Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                  A concise critical review of the literature on jargon aphasia, a type of aphasia in which the phonological structure of words is greatly affected. Suitable for undergraduates and graduates as a comprehensive introduction to jargon aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                  • Nespoulous, Jean-Luc, and Pierre Villiard, eds. 1990. Morphology, phonology, and aphasia. New York: Springer-Verlag.

                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4613-8969-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                    An extensive and detailed account of phonology in aphasia and its interaction with morphology, written by leading figures in the field. An accessible introduction for undergraduates.

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                                                                                                                    • Poeppel, David. 1996. A critical review of PET studies of phonological processing. Brain and Language 55.3: 317–351.

                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1006/brln.1996.0108Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                      An in-depth critical summary of PET studies of phonology in aphasia, by a leader in neuroimaging in aphasia. This work requires some prior understanding of PET and brain neuroanatomy. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                      • Wood, Sara E., William J. Hardcastle, and Fiona E. Gibbon. 2011. EPG patterns in a patient with phonemic paraphasic errors. Journal of Neurolinguistics 24.2: 213–221.

                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2010.02.010Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                        A rare case study using electropalatography (EPG) in aphasia, from pioneering investigators in this method. Offers a new insight into an old problem, the division between phonology and phonetics in aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                        Prosody

                                                                                                                        The study of rhythm, stress, and intonation in aphasic speech has revealed some interesting patterns that interact with word and sentence processing. Swinney, et al. 1980 focuses on stress and lexical access. Although prosodic disturbances are classically associated with right-hemisphere damage, left-hemisphere damage, closely associated with aphasia, can also produce prosodic impairments. Pell and Baum 1997 is a representative study of this literature domain. Niemi 1998 presents a detailed study of Finnish aphasia and challenges the prosodic deficit associated with Broca’s aphasia. Van Lancker Sidtis, et al. 2010 examines timing in aphasia, while Bruce, et al. 2012 examines the impact of unfamiliar accents on language understanding, which is explored further in the Sentence Comprehension section.

                                                                                                                        • Bruce, Carolyn, Cinn-Teng To, and Caroline Newton. 2012. Accent on communication: The impact of regional and foreign accent on comprehension in adults with aphasia. Disability and Rehabilitation 34.12: 1024–1029.

                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.3109/09638288.2011.631680Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                          Although this paper has been written for a clinical audience, it nevertheless highlights the issue of accent familiarity and how it affects understanding of spoken language in aphasia.

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                                                                                                                          • Niemi, Jussi. 1998. Modularity of prosody: Autonomy of phonological quantity and intonation in aphasia. Brain and Language 61.1: 45–53.

                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1006/brln.1997.1877Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                            An acoustic investigation of prosody in two Finnish-speaking aphasic individuals, offering interesting insights into the nature of prosodic deficits in Broca’s aphasia. For graduate study.

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                                                                                                                            • Pell, Marc D., and Shari R. Baum. 1997. Unilateral brain damage, prosodic comprehension deficits, and the acoustic cues to prosody. Brain and Language 57.2: 195–214.

                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1006/brln.1997.1736Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                              An acoustic study of affective (i.e., conveying emotion) and linguistic (i.e., conveying word meaning) prosody in individuals with left- and right-hemisphere damage, which brought to light new linguistic patterns. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                              • Swinney, David A., Edgar B. Zurif, and Anne Cutler. 1980. Effects of sentential stress and word class upon comprehension in Broca’s aphasics. Brain and Language 10:132–144.

                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/0093-934X(80)90044-9Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                This study shows that people with aphasia respond more quickly to stressed than to unstressed linguistic elements. This study informs the relationship between stress and open- versus closed-class words (see Closed-Class Words) and sentence-processing ability in general.

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                                                                                                                                • Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana, Daniel Kempler, Catherine Jackson, and E. Jeffrey Metter. 2010. Prosodic changes in aphasic speech: Timing. Journal of Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 24.2: 155–167.

                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.3109/02699200903464439Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                  This research team focuses on timing and vowel duration in aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, anomic types). The authors relate their findings to the location of structural and functional brain damage as well as relative preservation and loss of prosodic features after brain damage.

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                                                                                                                                  Nouns

                                                                                                                                  Although anomia (difficulty in retrieving nouns) is the main feature of the syndrome of anomic aphasia, it is also present in all aphasic speakers to a greater or lesser degree. Nickels 2001 as well as Laine and Martin 2006 offer concise and easy-to-follow introductions to single-word processing in aphasia. Howard and Franklin 1988 gives a detailed investigation of nouns (understanding and production) in a single patient from a particular theoretical perspective, that of cognitive neuropsychology. Bates, et al. 1991 and Semenza, et al. 1997, together with Lorenz and Zwitserlood 2014, are more specialized and focus on specific aspects of the architecture of the lexical system, differences between nouns and verbs, and processing of mass and compound nouns, relatively recent developments in noun research. Hillis, et al. 1990 sheds light on the nature of semantic difficulties pertaining to nouns. Reilly, et al. 2014 provides background to a recent theoretical development of lexical meaning (relevant to nouns as well as verbs) known as embodied cognition.

                                                                                                                                  • Bates, Elizabeth, Sylvia Chen, Ovid Tzeng, Ping Li, and Meiti Opie. 1991. The noun-verb problem in Chinese aphasia. Brain and Language 41:203–233.

                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/0093-934X(91)90153-RSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                    This paper demonstrates the well-known distinction between nouns and verbs in aphasia. The evidence from Chinese challenges standard accounts of noun and verb processing in aphasia and would appeal to graduate-level students. This paper is also relevant to those interested in verbs in aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                    • Hillis, Argye E., Brenda Rapp, Cristina Romani, and Alfonso Caramazza. 1990. Selective impairment of semantics in lexical processing. Cognitive Neuropsychology 7.3: 191–243.

                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/02643299008253442Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                      A detailed analysis of single-word comprehension and production of spoken and written nouns. This article provides a concise introduction to the architecture of the semantic system, that is, a unitary, modality-independent versus multiple-semantic systems view. For graduates. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                      • Howard, David, and Sue Franklin. 1988. Missing the meaning? A cognitive neuropsychological study of processing of words by an aphasic patient. Issues in the Biology of Language and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

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                                                                                                                                        A meticulous and in-depth case study of nouns (understanding and production) from a cognitive neuropsychological perspective that should be accessible for well-informed undergraduates.

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                                                                                                                                        • Laine, Matti, and Nadine Martin. 2006. Anomia: Theoretical and clinical aspects. Hove, UK, and New York: Psychology.

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                                                                                                                                          A textbook that gives a readable overview of noun retrieval deficits in aphasia, covering word retrieval in healthy individuals, neuroanatomical correlates, and psycholinguistic models. A comprehensive introduction to word retrieval difficulties which would appeal to undergraduates.

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                                                                                                                                          • Lorenz, Antjie, and Piene Zwitserlood. 2014. Processing of nominal compounds and gender-marked determiners in aphasia: Evidence from German. Cognitive Neuropsychology 31.1–2: 40–74.

                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2013.874335Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                            A detailed analysis of compound nouns and grammatical gender abilities, both comprehension and production. This paper also provides a summary of related studies of compound noun abilities in aphasia as well as a summary of current models of word processing.

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                                                                                                                                            • Nickels, Lyndsey. 2001. Spoken word production. In The handbook of cognitive neuropsychology: What deficits reveal about the human mind. Edited by Brenda Rapp, 291–320. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

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                                                                                                                                              An accessible and well-written chapter about the study of spoken word production in aphasia from an eminent researcher in the field of anomia.

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                                                                                                                                              • Reilly, Jamie, Stacy Harnish, Amanda Garcia, Jinyi Hung, Amy D. Rodriguez, and Bruce Crosson. 2014. Lesion symptom mapping of manipulable object naming in nonfluent aphasia: Can a brain be both embodied and disembodied? Cognitive Neuropsychology 31.4: 287–312.

                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2014.914022Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                As the authors state, embodied cognition offers an approach to word meaning grounded in action and perception. This paper provides an accessible background to this theory and related concepts and models of semantic memory.

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                                                                                                                                                • Semenza, Carlo, Sara Mondini, and Marinella Cappelletti. 1997. The grammatical properties of mass nouns: An aphasia case study. Neuropsychologia 35.1: 669–675.

                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3932(96)00124-8Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                  An exemplary case study on the distinction between count and mass nouns in aphasia. Graduate level. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                  Verbs

                                                                                                                                                  Verbs are pivotal for conveying the meaning of actions and for sentence construction. Production of verbs is often more difficult than production of nouns in aphasia. The interest in verb production began to gain momentum in the 1980s, although a few earlier papers had indicated difficulties with verb retrieval in aphasia. McCarthy and Warrington 1985 and Kohn, et al. 1989 show two different approaches to the study of verbs in aphasia. De Bleser and Kauschke 2003 juxtaposes aphasic and language acquisition data on verbs. Several psycholinguistic factors influence verb retrieval in aphasia, which are scrutinized in Berndt, et al. 1997. Kemmerer, et al. 2012 describes a series of tests that investigate verb processing skills and how these skills relate to areas of brain damage. Different brain regions have been shown to influence verb processing. Crepaldi, et al. 2011 presents a critical review of these findings.

                                                                                                                                                  • Berndt, Rita Sloan, Charlotte C. Mitchum, Anne N. Haendiges, and Jennifer Sandson. 1997. Verb retrieval in aphasia: 1, Characterizing single word impairments. Brain and Language 56.1: 68–106.

                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1006/brln.1997.1727Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                    This is the first part of a seminal and detailed study on verb retrieval (and comprehension) in aphasia. The article examines a number of psycholinguistic factors that influence verb processing. There is also a second part to the study in the same issue of the journal, which examines verbs in a sentential context. Available online through subscription.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Crepaldi, Davide, Manuela Berlingeri, Eraldo Paulesu, and Claudio Luzzatti. 2011. A place for nouns and a place for verbs? A critical review of neurocognitive data on grammatical-class effects. Brain and Language 116.1: 33–49.

                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2010.09.005Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                      This review paper evaluates data about the localization arguments of verbs and nouns, not only in aphasia but also in healthy individuals. Compares data from different neuroimaging techniques. Appropriate for informed graduates.

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                                                                                                                                                      • de Bleser, Ria, and Christina Kauschke. 2003. Acquisition and loss of nouns and verbs: Parallel or divergent patterns? Journal of Neurolinguistics 16.2–3: 213–229.

                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/S0911-6044(02)00015-5Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                        The language deficit in aphasia has been compared with the development of language in children. Linguistic elements that are acquired later by children (in the case of this paper, verbs) tend to be more vulnerable in aphasia. This pattern is known as Ribot’s law or regression hypothesis. This rare study compares verb and noun abilities in German-speaking aphasic individuals. Accessible for undergraduates.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Kemmerer, David, David Rudrauf, Ken Manzel, and Daniel Tranel. 2012. Behavioral patterns and lesion sites associated with impaired processing of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions. Cortex 48.7: 826–848.

                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.11.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                          A large-scale study of lexical and conceptual knowledge of verbs and their relation to neuroanatomical regions. The neuroimaging part of the paper could be challenging to grasp, but the behavioral part should be accessible by undergraduates.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Kohn, Susan, Marjorie Lorch, and David Pearson. 1989. Verb finding in aphasia. Cortex 25.1: 7–69.

                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1016/S0010-9452(89)80006-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                            Action naming is compared with object naming in this early study of single-verb production in aphasia, which subsequently attracted a great deal of interest and controversy concerning aphasia.

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                                                                                                                                                            • McCarthy, Rosaleen, and Elizabeth K. Warrington. 1985. Category specificity in an agrammatic patient: The relative impairment of verb retrieval and comprehension. Neuropsychologia 23.6: 709–727.

                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(85)90079-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                              Neat dissociations across and within word classes provide strong evidence about the architecture of the language system. This is a report on verb-noun differences in aphasia by two eminent neuropsychologists. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                              Closed-Class Words

                                                                                                                                                              Closed-class words (also known as function words or functional categories) are a subset of the grammatical operators of language and include prepositions, conjunctions, and auxiliaries (and sometimes bound morphemes). The studies in this section would also be useful to readers interested in sentence comprehension and production in aphasia (see Sentence Comprehension and Sentence Production). Sophisticated investigations of the differential processing between closed- and open-class words began to attract considerable attention in the late 1970s. Friederici and Schoenle 1980 is a representative study from that era. Inflectional morphology is vulnerable in Broca’s aphasia. Goodglass and Berko 1960 and Dickey, et al. 2008 are two representative studies of inflectional morphology, the former an early descriptive study focusing on production and the latter focusing on input processes. The ability to interpret pronouns in certain syntactic contexts has been studied by many researchers in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. However, Grodzinsky, et al. 1993 put forward a strong position that influenced subsequent research in this area. Relatively unexplored is the study of operators, such as quantifiers. Saddy 1995 (quantifiers) is a useful starting point in this small literature domain. Linebarger, et al. 1983, cited under Sentence Comprehension, should also be consulted by readers interested in processing of closed-class vocabulary in aphasia.

                                                                                                                                                              • Dickey, Michael W., Lisa H. Milman, and Cynthia K. Thompson. 2008. Judgment of functional morphology in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia. Journal of Neurolinguistics 21.1: 35–65.

                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2007.08.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                The authors provide a broad yet detailed study of comprehension of complementizers and verb inflections, using timed grammaticality judgment experiments in Broca’s aphasia. A comprehensive overview of the theoretical issues in this vibrant literature domain is presented.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Friederici, Angela D., and Paul W. Schoenle. 1980. Computational dissociation of two vocabulary types: Evidence from aphasia. Neuropsychologia 18.1: 11–20.

                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(80)90079-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                  This early study shows processing differences in two aphasic speakers between open- and closed-class words and provides evidence for two different lexical subsystems organized across the open- versus closed-class divide. Although this research domain attracted particular interest in the 1980s, the wider empirical issue still remains open. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Goodglass, Harold, and Jean Berko. 1960. Agrammatism and English inflectional morphology. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 3:257–267.

                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1044/jshr.0303.257Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                    Although old and possibly difficult to access, this early study of inflectional morphology production in agrammatic Broca’s aphasia revealed that order of difficulty is based on grammatical function rather than phonological salience. More recently, morphological processing has become an area of intense research.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Grodzinsky, Yosef, Kenneth Wexler, Yu-Chin Chien, Susan Marakovitz, and Julie Solomon. 1993. The breakdown of binding relations. Brain and Language 45.3: 396–422.

                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1006/brln.1993.1052Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                      Processing of pronominal elements is problematic for people with aphasia. This study focuses on pronouns and reflexives, using the framework of universal grammar. Presupposes some understanding of universal grammar.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Mätzig, Simone, Judit Druks, Ad Neeleman, and Gordon Craig. 2010. Spared syntax and impaired spell-out: The case of prepositions. Journal of Neurolinguistics 23.4: 354–382.

                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroling.2010.02.002Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                        Prepositions are a major type of closed-class words playing different roles in different languages, for example, denoting location, combining with verbs. Prepositions are notoriously difficult for individuals with aphasia. This in-depth study offers a comprehensive review of previous research and tests hypotheses relating to the status of prepositions in aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                        • Rispens, Judith E., Roelien Bastiaanse, and Ron van Zonneveld. 2001. Negation in agrammatism: A cross-linguistic comparison. Journal of Neurolinguistics 14.1: 59–83.

                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/S0911-6044(00)00004-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                          Negation is not a widely researched topic in aphasia. This is one of the few studies of negation in aphasia, offering unique insights from three different languages and using universal grammar as a framework. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Saddy, Douglas. 1995. Variables and events in the syntax of agrammatic speech. Brain and Language 50.2: 135–150.

                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1006/brln.1995.1043Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                            Quantifiers, for example, “every,” are a closed-class word type and reveal interesting patterns of sentence comprehension ability in aphasia. This is an original study of quantification in aphasia that will be of interest to graduates.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Sentence Comprehension

                                                                                                                                                                            The ability to extract meaning from sentences presented in isolation is challenging for many people with aphasia, across aphasic syndromes. Sentence comprehension deficits can be subtle or more obvious. A much-quoted study that set the research agenda for many researchers over several decades is Caramazza and Zurif 1976. From then on, the nature of syntactic comprehension has been heavily debated, especially comprehension of active vs. passive sentences for which Berndt, et al. 1996 provides a thorough background of studies as well as issues. A general overview that contains linguistic profiles and detailed datasets is Caplan and Hildebrandt 1988. Different profiles of grammatical competence were brought to light in Linebarger, et al. 1983, using the method of grammaticality judgments. The role of short-term memory in sentence comprehension has been a recurring and controversial research theme over a number of years. Salis and Edwards 2008 investigates understanding of wh-questions. Vallar and Shallice 1990 compiles several views and data on the role of short-term memory in aphasic sentence comprehension. A more up-to-date study on the role of short-term memory in sentence comprehension is Caplan, et al. 2013. Tyler 1992 presents a staunch thesis on the role of lexical access and its effects on aphasic sentence comprehension.

                                                                                                                                                                            • Berndt, Rita Sloan, Charlotte C. Mitchum, and Anne N. Haendiges. 1996. Comprehension of reversible sentence in “agrammatism”: A meta-analysis. Cognition 58.3: 289–308.

                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(95)00682-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                              A comprehensive review using the method of meta-analysis on the controversial issue of uniformity of sentence comprehension (in particular the distinction between active and passive sentences in agrammatism). Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Caplan, David, and Nancy Hildebrandt. 1988. Disorders of syntactic comprehension. Issues in the Biology of Language and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

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                                                                                                                                                                                An impressive volume for the number of sentence types and constructions investigated in aphasia. Readable and detailed. A solid introduction to sentence comprehension in aphasia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Caplan, D., J. Michaud, and R. Hufford. 2013. Short-term memory, working memory, and syntactic comprehension in aphasia. Cognitive Neuropsychology 30.2: 77–109.

                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1080/02643294.2013.803958Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                  A study with a large sample of individuals with aphasia (sixty-one), exploring the relationship between short-term memory, working memory, and sentence comprehension. Analysis showed that more complex short-term memory tasks (where information had to be retained and manipulated) was related to the ability to comprehend more complex sentence types. See other papers by Caplan and colleagues for further exploration of working memory in aphasia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Caramazza, Alfonso, and Edgar B. Zurif. 1976. Dissociation of algorithmic and heuristic processes in language comprehension: Evidence from aphasia. Brain and Language 3.4: 572–582.

                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/0093-934X(76)90048-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                    A pioneering study on three types of aphasia (Broca’s, Wernicke’s, conduction) that exerted major influence on subsequent research. The issue of syntactic versus semantic constraints in sentence comprehension in aphasia is still topical.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Linebarger, Marcia C., Myrna F. Schwartz, and Eleanor M. Saffran. 1983. Sensitivity to grammatical structure in so-called agrammatic aphasics. Cognition 13.3: 361–392.

                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(83)90015-XSave Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                      This original and much-quoted study shows that the people with Broca’s aphasia can perform grammaticality judgments, now a controversial finding. Undergraduates should find this paper relatively easy to follow.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miyake, Akira, Patricia A. Carpenter, and Marcel Adam Just. 1995. Reduced resources and specific impairments in normal and aphasic sentence comprehension. Cognitive Neuropsychology 12.6: 651–679.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/02643299508252012Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        The concept of reduced resources in aphasic sentence comprehension is discussed in detail. The authors advocate the reduced processing approach and attempt to cast doubt on other issues of sentence comprehension, including modular approaches and loss of grammatical competence. For informed graduates. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Salis, Christos, and Susan Edwards. 2008. Comprehension of wh-questions and declarative sentences in agrammatic aphasia: The set partition hypothesis. Journal of Neurolinguistics 21.5: 375–399.

                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2007.11.001Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                          The authors investigate the ability of agrammatic aphasic speakers to understand questions beginning with who, what, and which in different levels of linguistic complexity. Should be accessible for graduates. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tyler, Lorraine Komisarjevsky. 1992. Spoken language comprehension: An experimental approach to disordered and normal processing. Issues in Biology and Language Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            A series of in-depth experiments guided by the well-known cohort model of lexical access applied to aphasic sentence processing. This clearly written book investigates various levels of linguistic description beyond sentences, such as inflectional morphology and verb-argument structure, in a number of aphasic speakers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Vallar, Giuseppe, and Tim Shallice, eds. 1990. Neuropsychological impairments of short-term memory. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511665547Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                              The involvement of short-term memory in sentence comprehension has been a major theme in aphasia research. Several chapters, written by leading figures in the field, examine the interplay between short-term memory and sentence comprehension in aphasia. Ingenious ways of investigating memory and sentence comprehension are described.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              Sentence Production

                                                                                                                                                                                              Bastiaanse and Thompson 2012 provides a comprehensive overview of agrammatism by leading figures in the field. Butterworth and Howard 1987 offers one of the few extensive studies of spontaneous language in fluent aphasia. Prins and Bastiaanse 2004 reviews studies of spontaneous speech in aphasia. Faroqi-Shah and Thompson 2003 grapples with the issue of complex sentence production in aphasia and how specific lexical cues facilitate or inhibit grammatical sentences. The ability to process tense has been brought to the forefront of aphasia research in Friedmann and Grodzinsky 1997 and galvanized much of subsequent research in many languages. The controversial theory of adaptation symptoms in Broca’s aphasia (and lack of adaptation in Wernicke’s aphasia) is clearly presented and substantiated in Kolk and Heeschen 1992. Readers interested in sentence production should also refer to the sections Verbs and Closed-Class Words, because these types of words are intrinsically linked to sentence production. Goodglass, et al. 1972 is an early study that revealed exciting linguistic patterns.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bastiaanse, Roelien, and Cynthia K. Thompson, eds. 2012. Perspectives on agrammatism. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                This edited volume comprises chapters on a number of topics, including lexical, morphological, and prosodic aspects of the ubiquitous syndrome of agrammatic aphasia. An accessible introduction to a range of topics, not only on sentence production but also on comprehension, which should also be useful to those interested in other types of aphasia, beyond agrammatism.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                • Butterworth, Brian L., and David Howard. 1987. Paragrammatisms. Cognition 26.1: 1–37.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(87)90012-6Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                  A rare analysis of grammatically incorrect sentences in fluent aphasic speakers (jargon aphasia in particular). The paragrammatisms, that is, the grammatically incorrect sentences produced by fluent aphasic speakers, are compared with the errors from healthy speakers.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen, and Cynthia K. Thompson. 2003. Effect of lexical cues on the production of active and passive sentences in Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia. Brain and Language 85.3: 409–426.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1016/S0093-934X(02)00586-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                    An ingenious study of production of active and passive sentences in nonfluent and fluent aphasia. This study is not only about sentence production and syntax but also about the role of inflection and function words in general.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Friedmann, Naama, and Yosef Grodzinsky. 1997. Tense and agreement in agrammatic production: Pruning the syntactic tree. Brain and Language 56.3: 397–425.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1006/brln.1997.1795Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                      One of the first studies to use the minimalism approach of universal grammar in aphasia. The authors use data from Hebrew-speaking aphasic individuals to show the importance of tense and agreement in sentence production. Knowledge of the linguistic framework is required. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Goodglass, Harold, Jean Berko Gleason, Nancy Ackerman Bernholtz, and Mary R. Hyde. 1972. Some linguistic structures in the speech of a Broca’s aphasic. Cortex 8.2: 191–212.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1016/S0010-9452(72)80018-2Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        A linguistically motivated analysis of sentence production in a case of Broca’s aphasia. Focuses on several grammatical structures (including inflectional morphology). This early study set the stage for much of the research in the 1990s and onward. Undergraduates should find this paper relatively easy to follow.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kolk, Herman, and Claus Heeschen. 1992. Agrammatism, paragrammatism, and the management of language. Language and Cognitive Processes 7.2: 89–129.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/01690969208409381Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The elliptical sentence fragments of Broca’s aphasia are compared with the nonelliptical utterances of Wernicke’s aphasia, against the backdrop of the controversial adaptation theory. This theory postulates that the fragmented output, typical of Broca’s aphasia, need not directly reflect an underlying impairment. Of particular interest to those interest in the linguistic phenomenon of ellipsis. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Prins, Ronald, and Roelien Bastiaanse. 2004. Review: Analysing the spontaneous speech of aphasic speakers. Aphasiology 18.12: 1075–1091.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/02687030444000534Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This paper usefully references a number of studies that have examined various types of aphasic speech samples, but it also includes reviews of well-known clinical assessments that do not primarily deal with spontaneous speech data.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            Discourse

                                                                                                                                                                                                            The production and understanding of discourse (connected speech, conversation) remains a critical area of research, particularly in rehabilitation. This is because the ideal outcome for therapy is to see a change in an individual’s ability to use language as a healthy adult would (e.g., hold conversations and read/write longer passages of text). However, the relationship between frequently used measures of aphasia symptoms (e.g., picture naming, sentence comprehension) and performance with connected speech remains contentious. Mayer and Murray 2003 demonstrates that picture-naming scores were related to classification of aphasia severity, but not to how well people retrieved words during conversation. The researchers argue for the use of measures of connected speech in research and therapy outcomes. Levy, et al. 2012 revisits the finding that isolated sentence comprehension ability does not predict discourse comprehension. They found that increased sentence complexity does reduce discourse comprehension, both in individuals with aphasia and in healthy controls. The increased complexity of discourse processing means that other cognitive and linguistic skills have to be taken into account. Meteyard, et al. 2015 highlights the importance of working memory, inferencing, and self-monitoring skills during the reading of longer texts. The examination of continuous speech embraces conversational analysis (CA), which uses qualitative and quantitative measures (see Armstrong 2000, Wilkinson 2008, and Better Conversations in Aphasia), and grammatical analysis, which uses quantitative measures (Rochon, et al. 2000). The characteristics of aphasia in monologic and dialogic connected speech have been investigated in a number of ways using various sampling techniques. Ulatowska, et al. 1983 is an early example of such work; Hanna K. Ulatowska initiated these investigations in aphasia. The influence of the sampling method for both of these levels of analysis and lack of normative data are discussed in Prins and Bastiaanse 2004. Perkins 2007 provides an excellent introduction to discourse study in language impairment. The author distinguishes between different approaches, sets out some theoretical underpinnings of these levels of linguistic analysis, and discusses the implications for aphasia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Armstrong, Elizabeth. 2000. Aphasic discourse analysis: The story so far. Aphasiology 14.9: 875–892.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/02687030050127685Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              A useful paper that reviews studies and discusses the difference between detailed analyses, such as CA, and functional approaches that examine the uses (pragmatics) of dialogue in which one partner has aphasia. A large reference list. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Better Conversations in Aphasia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is a free learning resource that provides training in how to complete conversation therapy for couples where one partner has aphasia.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Levy, Joshua, Elizabeth Hoover, Gloria Waters, et al. 2012. Effects of syntactic complexity, semantic reversibility, and explicitness on discourse comprehension in persons with aphasia and in healthy controls. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 21.2: S154–S165.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1044/1058-0360(2012/11-0104)Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A study of auditory comprehension of discourse, with a group of thirty-eight individuals with aphasia and 30 healthy controls. Multiple-choice questions were used to assess comprehension. Higher accuracy for answering these questions was found for passages with syntactically simple sentences as compared to syntactically complex sentences. This was true for both individuals with aphasia and healthy controls.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mayer, Jamie, and Laura Murray. 2003. Functional measures of naming in aphasia: Word retrieval in confrontation naming versus connected speech. Aphasiology 17.5: 481–497.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/02687030344000148Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A very interesting study with fourteen individuals with aphasia (seven mildly and seven moderately impaired). Measures of connected speech output (conversation and description tasks) were compared to measures of confrontation naming (picture naming). Individuals were better at retrieving words and self-correcting errors during connected speech, and confrontation-naming scores were not associated to performance in connected speech tasks. This paper questions the use of tasks such as confrontation naming for classifying severity or evaluating treatment outcomes.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Meteyard, Lotte, Carolyn Bruce, Anne Edmundson, and Jane Oakhill. 2015. Profiling text comprehension impairments in aphasia. Aphasiology 29.1: 1–28.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1080/02687038.2014.955388Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A case series of four individuals with aphasia, exploring their reading skills in depth. Each individual presented with difficulties reading longer texts, and the paper aims to profile underlying difficulties and identify which skills are critical for successful text reading. Results showed that inferencing skills, working memory, and self-monitoring are important in understanding how text reading breaks down.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Perkins, Michael. 2007. Pragmatic impairment. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511486555Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Chapter 2 provides an excellent introduction to this corner of linguistic analysis; chapter 3, a discussion about pragmatics in aphasic speech, implications for modularity, and capacity of the system. Recommended as offering a clear start to what is often a very muddled field in aphasia studies.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Prins, Ronald, and Roelien Bastiaanse. 2004. Review: Analysing the spontaneous speech of aphasic speakers. Aphasiology 18.12: 1075–1091.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DOI: 10.1080/02687030444000534Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This paper usefully references a number of studies that have examined various types of aphasic speech samples, but it also includes reviews of well-known clinical assessments that do not primarily deal with spontaneous speech data. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rochon, Elizabeth, Eleanor M. Saffran, Rita Sloan Berndt, and Myrna F. Schwartz. 2000. Quantitative analysis of aphasic sentence production: Further developments and new claims. Brain and Language 72.3: 193–218.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1006/brnl.1999.2285Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The authors present updated work on a quantifiable analysis of continuous aphasic speech data used primarily with Broca’s types of aphasia. Syntactic and lexical features are captured, and claims are made about the nature of aphasia types. A clinical assessment based on these procedures is available. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ulatowska, Hanna K., Renee Freedman-Stern, Alice Weiss Doyel, and Sara Macaluso-Haynes. 1983. Production of narrative discourse in aphasia. Brain and Language 19.2: 317–334.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1016/0093-934X(83)90074-3Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A study involving a pictorial-based storytelling method that shows preservation of discourse structure is spared, but with a reduction in information content in a group of aphasic speakers. A representative example of earlier experimental discourse studies in aphasia. Available online through purchase.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wilkinson, Ray. 2008. Conversation analysis and communication disorders. In The handbook of clinical linguistics. Edited by Martin J. Ball, Michael R. Perkins, Nicole Müller, and Sarah Howard, 92–106. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1002/9781444301007Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A good introduction to how conversational analysis has been applied to aphasic data.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Gestures and Sign Language

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Meaning in interpersonal communication can be expressed nonvocally through sign languages in deaf people and also gesture, which is used spontaneously by hearing individuals. Aphasia is a language disorder as opposed to a speech disorder, for example, apraxia of speech, dysarthria. This means that it disrupts symbolic representation of linguistic codes. Hickok, et al. 1998 offers a comprehensive review of aphasia studies of American sign language. Marshall, et al. 2004 discusses British sign language in an aphasic person. The presence of aphasia in sign language users affects the ability to express meaning through signs. People who are not deaf and used spoken language before being affected by aphasia, the use of gesture is a means of communication that can be capitalized to augment residual language skills. Sekine and Rose 2013 presents an extensive study of gesture production in different aphasia syndromes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hickok, Gregory, Ursula Bellugi, and Edward S. Klima. 1998. The neural organization of language: Evidence from sign language aphasia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2.4: 129–136.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DOI: 10.1016/S1364-6613(98)01154-1Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An overview of American sign language studies in aphasia from eminent researchers in the field of sign language research, with emphasis on the neural organization of language.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Marshall, Jane, Jo Atkinson, Elaine Smulovitch, Alice Thacker, and Bencie Woll. 2004. Aphasia in a user of British sign language: Dissociation between sign and gesture. Cognitive Neuropsychology 21.5: 537–554.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DOI: 10.1080/02643290342000249Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is an elegant demonstration of the difference between gestures and signs, discussing the concept of iconicity. There are numerous examples that highlight the main issues in sign language research and their relation to spoken language, which make the paper easy to follow.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mengotti, Paola, Corrado Corradi-dell’Acqua, Gioia A. L. Negri, Maja Ukmar, Valentina Pesavento, and Raffaella I. Rumiati. 2013. Selective imitation impairments differentially interact with language processing. Brain 136:2602–2618.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOI: 10.1093/brain/awt194Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A neuroimaging study of understanding, repetition, and naming of gestures focusing on the nature of meaningful and meaningless gestures after left hemisphere damage. The inclusion of aphasic and nonaphasic participants, yet, brain-damaged individuals helped to show the influence meaning plays in gesture performance. Undergraduates would find the neuroimaging component of the study difficult to follow, but the behavioral data are more accessible.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sekine, Kazuki, and Miranda L. Rose. 2013. The relationship of aphasia type and gesture production in people with aphasia. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 22.4: 662–672.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1044/1058-0360(2013/12-0030)Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A large-scale study in which the authors investigate performance of gestures across different aphasic syndromes. The relationship between spoken language skills and use of gesture is clearly demonstrated.

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