Islamic Studies People of the Book
by
Frank Peters
  • LAST MODIFIED: 14 December 2009
  • DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0059

Introduction

The issues represented by the phrase “People of the Book” surface under a number of different headings in the Islamic context. First, there is the religious content and theological intent of the expression, which summons up the essence of the three scriptural (i.e., monotheistic) religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—and their mutual relationships and dealings over the centuries. The notion of a shared tradition of ripturalism can be understood as both forging a brotherhood and grounding a rivalry. The Muslims, in fact, understood it as both, and they implemented it as policy toward the Jews and Christians who lived under their sovereignty. Thus, the concept of a “People of the Book,” a notion that goes back to the Qurʾan, lies at the heart of the Muslims' successful creation of a political society that was understood in the first instance as a community of believers but also included within its expanding frontiers significant religious diversity. The notion lives on today to confront the Islamist defenders of the traditional two-tiered society of the People of the Book and the modernist advocates of a constitutionally derived society of citizens.

General Overviews

The formal expression “People of the Book” (ahl al-kitab) is a Muslim one, and although the Jews and Christians—the other two parties in the collective—have occasionally, and reluctantly, adopted the term to describe the reality of their filiation, the focus here is on the Muslim interpretation of the term. It is, in fact, Qurʾanic, which merits its inclusion in two of the basic instruments of Islamic research: Vajda 1960 and Sharon 2004. These two encyclopedia entries essentially present Western understandings of the texts. For two modern Muslim readings, see Ayoub 2004 and Rahman 1994. The usage of the term in the Qurʾan suggests that the phrase was probably a simple denominative before it began to be understood as a title. It is used in the Qurʾan quite literally to designate people who possess a book, a revealed scripture. In Muhammad's world, that would be the Jews, who have the Torah (Tawrat), and the Christians, with their Gospel.

  • Ayoub, Mahmoud. “Dhimmah in Qurʾan and Hadith.” In Muslims and Others in Early Islamic Society. Edited by Robert Hoyland, 25–36. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004.

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    The approach here is more typically Muslim in broadening the evidentiary base to include the Prophet traditions.

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    • Busse, Heribert. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity: Theological and Historical Affiliations. Princeton, NJ: Marcus Weiner, 1988.

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      Explores the broader relationship from an Islamic perspective, though written by a non-Muslim.

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      • Peters, F. E. The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition. Vol 1. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

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        Puts the dhimma experience in a broader context of tolerance (see pp. 269–278).

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        • Peters, F. E. The Children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. New ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

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          Provides the same overview as Peters 2003, but more briefly and with guides into further reading.

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          • Rahman, Fazlur. Major Themes of the Qurʾan. 2d ed. Minneapolis, MN: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1994.

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            See “The People of the Book and the Diversity of Religions” (pp. 162–170) for a positive view of the theme from a modernist Muslim perspective.

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            • Sharon, Moshe. “People of the Book.” In Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾan, Vol. 4. Edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe, 36–43. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2004.

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              A narrow but detailed survey of the use of the term in the Qurʾan and related literature.

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              • Vajda, Georges. “Ahl al-Kitab.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. 1. New ed. Edited by H.A.R. Gibb, J. H. Kramers, E. Lévi-ProvenÇal, and J. Schacht, 264–266. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1960.

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                Explores the larger contextual use of the term and its usage in the first half of the 20th century.

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                Revelation and the People of the Book in the Qurʾan

                The ongoing revelation of God's will to humankind provides the grounding of the notion of peoples who possess the Book, since it involves the concept of both election—the revelation entrusted to a specific group to the exclusion of others (“God took a pledge from them” [Sura 3:187])—as well as the belief that the communication was achieved through the bestowal of the message on God's chosen messengers, the prophets. Not all of God's messages rose to the level of scripture (kitab)—Abraham received his message in the form of “leaves” (53:76; 87:18)—but when the Qurʾan speaks of “Scripture” it is in the formal sense of “Revelation-in-a-Book.” This means the Torah and the Gospel and the people who were and are the guardians of these books, the Jews and the Christians, respectively. Watt 1970 is the best approach to this. Strands of the Qurʾan directed at Muhammad's pagan audience refer to God's messengers and their messages in the form of “warnings”—and to the price of ignoring them, as recounted in the so-called warning stories (analyzed in Welch 2000). Where the conceptual background of his understanding of the history of revelation rises to the level of policy is in the Prophet's regard of the older bearers of that revelation. Watt 1970 looks at this question succinctly and thoroughly, while Wheeler 2002 follows its development. Muhammad's understanding of the history of prophecy helped him know who the Jews and the Christians were, and in the end determined his policy toward them.

                • Rahman, Fazlur. Major Themes of the Qurʾan. 2d ed. Minneapolis, MN: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1994.

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                  See pages 80–105 for a modern Muslim treatment of “Prophethood and Revelation.”

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                  • Sachedina, Abdulaziz. “The Qurʾan and Other Religions.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Qurʾan. Edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

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                    See pages 291–309, and especially pages 302–305, on “Revelatory Chronology and Supersession.”

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                    • Watt, W. Montgomery, ed. Bell's Introduction to the Qurʾan. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1970.

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                      This is the best English-language introduction to the Qurʾan.

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                      • Welch, Alford T. “Formulaic Features of the Punishment Stories.” In Literary Structures of Religious Meaning in the Qurʾan. Edited by Issa Boullata, 77–116. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Curzon, 2000.

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                        Addresses the use of formulae, one of the characteristics of oral composition.

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                        • Wheeler, Brannon M., ed. and trans. Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis. London: Continuum, 2002.

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                          Traces the rich Muslim development of the “Tales of the Prophets.”

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                          People of the Book Other than the Jews and Christians

                          The Jews and the Christians were the primary exemplars of the People of the Book, but revelation was by no means confined to them. The Qurʾan demonstrates an understanding that others had their prophets and their books (see Wild and McAuliffe 2004). They are not always clearly identified in the Qurʾan, however, and it fell to a later generation of Muslims to discern who these other “Book People” might be. The question was important because inclusion among the People of the Book, as happened with the Zoroastrians and the Sabians of Harran (studied in Green 1992), conferred a special status on members of the Muslim community. (See The Dhimma.)

                          • Green, Tamara. The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions of Harran. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1992.

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                            An exploration of the mysterious Harranians, before and after their discovery by Islam.

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                            • Wild, Clare, and Jane Dammen McAuliffe. “Religious Pluralism and the Qurʾan.” In Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾan, Vol. 4. Edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2004.

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                              See pages 398–420, with a very full bibliography, and 407–408 on the Sabians and the Zoroastrians.

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                              Jews in the Qurʾan

                              In the Qurʾan, the term “People of the Book” refers chiefly to the Jews, particularly, after Mohammad's migration there, the Jews of Medina (see Gil 1984 on their uncertain origins). They tend to be mentioned as Banu Israʾil or Yahud (Rubin 2003). In Qurʾan 3:64, Mohammad is told by God to find some common ground with them, due to their shared monotheism. The Jews were included in the “Medina Accords,” whereby tribes and factions in the oasis agreed to accept the Prophet Muhammad's authority in all matters political, and there are indications that Muhammad may have expected, or at least hoped, that these fellow monotheists would accept him and his familiar message of God's creation, benevolence, and prophets.

                              Theological Issues

                              In its later chapters—revealed at Medina—the Qurʾan explains that Medina's Jews and Christians were not moving en masse toward an acceptance of Muhammad as their prophet, and it offers an explanation of why this was the case. It says, for example, that the People of the Book—again, read the Jews of Medina—hid the truth of their Book (2:42, 76; 5:15) and that the Jews had altered their scriptures, twisting the words (3:78) and substituting others (2:58; 7:16). Furthermore, the Qurʾan explains that the Jews had failed their God in a number of ways: by rejecting revelations, killing the prophets (4:155), and with their false claim, “We have killed the Messiah,” that is, Jesus (4:156–157). Anawati 1990 explores mentions of Jesus in the Qurʾan, while Robinson 1991 covers the crucifixion issue thoroughly.

                              • Anawati, Georges C. “ʿIsa.” In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. 4. Edited by E. van Donzel, B. Lewis, and C. Pellat, 81–86. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1990.

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                                A brief and basic treatment of Jesus in the Qurʾan and the Muslim tradition.

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                                • Caspar, R., and J.-M. Gaudeul. “Textes de la tradition musulmane concernant le tahrif (falsification) des Ecritures.” Islamochristiana Roma 6 (1980): 61–104.

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                                  The most thorough study of the “falsification of scripture” issue.

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                                  • Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava. Intertwined Worlds: Medieval Islam and Bible Criticism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

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                                    Traces the argument during its medieval phase.

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                                    • Lazarus-Yafeh, Hava. “Tahrif.” In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. 10. Edited by P. J. Bearman, et al., 111–112. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2000.

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                                      Sets out the basic parameters of the falsification topos.

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                                      • Parrinder, Geoffrey. Jesus in the Qurʾan. London: Faber and Faber, 1965.

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                                        A straightforward analysis of the Qurʾanic texts on “ʿIsa.”

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                                        • Robinson, Neal. Christ in Islam and Christianity. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.

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                                          A nuanced comparative treatment of Jesus. Pages 106–141 cover the crucifixion issue thoroughly.

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                                          Political Issues

                                          The Qurʾan refers to a number of political conflicts between Muhammad and specific tribes of Medina's Jews, and the theme is enlarged in the hadith (Kister 1986). Information about Muhammad's attack and expulsion or decimation of three Jewish tribes of the Medina oasis is laid out in detail in Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah (Life of the Envoy of God), where the Jews are identified by their tribal names and not as “People of the Book.” Muhammad's treatment of the Jews of Medina was not about religion; it was more about loyalty and treaty obligations: their crime was not that they were Jewish but that they had violated an agreement with the Prophet (Lecker 1997). As Muslim historians have pointed out (e.g., Ahmad 1980), in Quran 8:55–58, God instructs Muhammad, “If you fear treachery from any group, dissolve it.”

                                          • Ahmad, Barakat. Muhammad and the Jews: A Re- Examination, New Delhi: Vikas, 1980.

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                                            A measured Muslim reexamination of the entire affair.

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                                            • Kister, M. J. “The Massacre of the Banu Qurayza: A Re-examination of a Tradition.” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 8 (1986): 61–96.

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                                              An analysis of the reports (hadith) of this event.

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                                              • Lecker, Michael. “Did Muhammad Conclude Treaties with the Jewish Tribes Nadir, Qurayza, and Qaynuqa?” Israel Oriental Studies 17 (1997): 29–36.

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                                                Lecker believes that Muhammad did indeed conclude treaties with these Jewish tribes.

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                                                • Watt, W. Montgomery. “The Condemnation of the Jews of the Banu Qurayzah: A Study in the Sources of the Sirah.The Muslim World 42, no. 3 (1952): 160–171.

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                                                  A deconstruction of Ibn Ishaq's account.

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                                                  Christians in the Qurʾan

                                                  Although Muhammad probably had little or no direct contact with Christians until he reached Christian settlements with his raiding parties, the Qurʾan explains that, like the Jews, the Christians too had strayed from the truth, most notably for their assertion of a divine Trinity: “Jesus was nothing more than a messenger. Stop talking about the ‘Trinity’” (4:171). This is explored in Griffith 2001. The Qurʾan's remarks on Christians were enlarged and explained by Muslim commentators who had direct experience of Christians (see McAuliffe 1991).

                                                  • Bell, Richard. The Origin of Islam in Its Christian Environment. London: Macmillan, 1926.

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                                                    An attempt to discern the Christianity behind the Qurʾan. Reprinted in 1968.

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                                                    • Fiey, J. M. “Nasara.” In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. 7. Edited by C. E. Bosworth, et al., 970–973 Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1993.

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                                                      An investigation of the view of Christians in the Qurʾan and their status in Islam.

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                                                      • Griffith, Sidney H. “Christians and Christianity.” In Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Vol. 1. Edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe. 307–316. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2001.

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                                                        Covers the same ground as Fiey 1993, but on a narrower scale.

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                                                        • McAuliffe, Jane Dammen. Qurʾānic Christians: An Analysis of Classical and Modern Exegesis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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                                                          A thorough and enlightening tour of how later Muslims construed the Qurʾanic data.

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                                                          • Robinson, Neal. Christ in Islam and Christianity. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.

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                                                            Looks beyond the Qurʾan (pp. 22–34).

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                                                            Political Negotiations with People of the Book

                                                            While the Qurʾan reflects often on Jews and Christians, whether specifically or under the rubric “People of the Book,” historically it offered little specific guidance on how they were to be treated, whether by individual Muslims in social terms or by the community (umma) in a political sense. The specifics were provided to Muslims by the formal hadith and to the umma in the narrative accounts of Muhammad's own encounters with communities of Jews and Christians (see Donner 1981), first at the oasis at Khaybar and later at the Yemeni town of Najran. In 627 CE, Muhammad and his forces approached the oasis of Khaybar north of Medina. The dwellers in Khaybar were Jews, many of them refugees from Medina. Muhammad offered them (and to a second Jewish oasis at Fadak) the right to maintain possession of their property and continue to live as Jews if they submitted without resistance and agreed to pay half the annual produce of the oasis as tribute to the Muslim community (Shah 1988). In 631 he received a delegation from the Christian town on Najran in the Yemen far to the south, who came asking for terms even before they were attacked. They were granted “the protection of God and His Envoy,” and they too had to pay part of their produce as tribute.

                                                            • Donner, Fred McGraw. The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981.

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                                                              Pages 76–77 focus on the tributary arrangements rather than the religious concessions. This is the standard treatment of the earliest conquests and their terms.

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                                                              • Shah, Nasim Hasan. “The Concept of Al-Dhimmah and the Rights and Duties of the Dhimmis in an Islamic State.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 9, no. 2 (1988): 217–222.

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                                                                A rather uncritical review of the treaties with Khaybar and Najran.

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                                                                The Dhimma

                                                                The tolerance granted to the Jews of Khaybar and the Christians of Najran was later formalized in the dhimma, a contract or covenant (ʿahd) between the Muslim community and their subjects from among the People of the Book (Bosworth 1982). According to the Prophet's own terms, the vanquished recognized the political sovereignty of Islam and in turn were permitted the free practice of their religion, subject to certain limitations (spelled out in Tritton 1930 and Fattal 1958). If this was not toleration in the full modern sense (Friedmann 2003), it gave them a juridical status in the community (al-Qattan 1999) and a degree of autonomy (Goitein 2004).

                                                                • Bosworth, C. E. “The Concept of Dhimma in Early Islam.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1, The Central Lands. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis. 37–54. New York and London: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                  Provides a brief history of the concept.

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                                                                  • Fattal, Antoine. Le statut légal des non-Musulmans en pays d'Islam. Beirut: Librairie Orientale, 1958.

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                                                                    The standard treatment of the dhimma as a juridical concept.

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                                                                    • Friedmann, Yohanan. Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

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                                                                      Explores the broader implications of Islamic policy.

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                                                                      • Goitein, S. D. “Minority Self Rule and Government in Islam.” In Muslims and Others in Early Islamic Society. Edited by Robert Hoyland. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004.

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                                                                        See pages 159–174, with abundant material drawn from the Cairo Geniza.

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                                                                        • Nettler, Ronald L. “Dhimmi.” In The Oxford Encylopedia of the Modern Islamic World, Vol. 1. Edited by John Esposito, 374–375. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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                                                                          brings the notion into modern times.

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                                                                          • al-Qattan, Najwa. “Dhimmis in the Muslim Court: Legal Autonomy and Religious Discrimination.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 31, no. 3 (1999): 429–444.

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                                                                            Explores the legal implications of dhimma status.

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                                                                            • Sachedina, Abdulaziz. “Political Implications of the Islamic Notion of ‘Supersession’ as Reflected in Islamic Jurisprudence.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 7, no. 2 (1996): 159–168.

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                                                                              Explores the deeper religiopolitical implications of the arrangement.

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                                                                              • Tritton, A. S. The Caliphs and Their Non-Muslim Subjects. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1930.

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                                                                                Long the classic over-all treatment, and still valuable.

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                                                                                Polytheists

                                                                                The protection and freedom allowed to Jews and Christians under the dhimma contract was not granted to the polytheists among the conquered peoples, who instead had to “submit” (aslama) or face death. “Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day”—the Quran seems to say in a famous, and famously obscure, “verse of the sword”—”until they pay the tribute (jizya) readily and are humbled [or “agree to submit]” (9:29). This verse is addressed in Kister 1964, Rubin 1993, and Rubin 2006. The poll tax, or head tax, became the primary token of political submission in Islam (Cornell 1995, Heck 2004).

                                                                                • Bravmann, M. M. The Spiritual Background of Early Islam: Studies in ancient Arab Concepts. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1972.

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                                                                                  The ancient Arab background of jizya is explored on pages 199–212.

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                                                                                  • Cornell, Vincent J. “Jizyah.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Arab World, Vol. 2. By John L. Esposito, 377–378. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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                                                                                    Brings the notion of a poll tax into modern times.

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                                                                                    • Heck, Paul C. “Poll Tax.” In Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Vol. 4. Edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe, 151–155. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2004.

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                                                                                      An analysis of the Qurʾanic data.

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                                                                                      • Kister, M. J. “ʿAn yadin ( Qurʾan IX/29): An Attempt at Interpretatio.” Arabica 11 (1964): 272–278.

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                                                                                        A review of Muslim interpretations of this critical poll-tax verse in the Qurʾan.

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                                                                                        • Rubin, Uri. “Qurʾan and tafsir: The Case of ʿan yadin.Der Islam 70 (1993): 133–144.

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                                                                                          Rubin argues that later exegetes read later practices into this difficult verse (9:29).

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                                                                                          • Rubin, Uri. “Qurʾan and Poetry: More Data Concerning the Qurʾanic jizya Verse ( ʿan yadin). Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 31 (2006): 139–146.

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                                                                                            Provides additional evidence for Rubin's case.

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                                                                                            The Covenant of ʿUmar

                                                                                            The dhimma agreement for Jews and Christians granted guarantees of life, property, and freedom of religion, but it also imposed certain obligations upon the vanquished Scriptuaries. The full list of privileges and restrictions appears in a document called the “Covenant of ʿUmar,” reportedly granted by the second caliph, ʿUmar ibn al-Khattab (634–644 CE), to the Christian inhabitants of Jerusalem on the occasion of the city's surrender in 635 CE. Various forms of this covenant were being discussed in Egypt and Iraq as late as 800, and the “Covenant” as we know it probably reached its final form in Iraq in the mid-9th century (Cohen 1999). It contains some of the basic conditions that bind the dhimmis from that day to the present, but it has been grist for Muslim lawyers (Levy-Rubin 2005), and its form and variations have often been shaped by local circumstances (Noth 2004).

                                                                                            The Jews Under Islam

                                                                                            Many Jews came under the sovereignty of Islam (surveyed briefly but thoroughly in Lewis 1984; cf. Frank 1995, Deshen and Zenner 1996), just as they did under the Christians of Europe (Cohen 1994). Many of them converted to Islam, as did many Christians, but others lived for well over a millennium under the dhimma agreement, which guaranteed the right to life, property, and religious freedom, if not equality in status with Muslims. These Sephardic Jews—a Spanish denomination later applied to all the Jews of Islam—played an important role in both the intellectual and economic life of medieval Islam (Fischel 1968). The documentation of their life is rich (Stillman 1979, Stillman 1991), particularly from medieval Cairo-Fustat (Goitein 1967). The foundation of Israel and the subsequent hostility between the two communities ended that relationship in shared living (Simon, et al. 1967).

                                                                                            • Cohen, Mark. Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews of the Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

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                                                                                              A fundamental comparative study.

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                                                                                              • Deshen, Shlomo, and Walter P. Zenner, eds. Jews Among Muslims: Communities in the Precolonial Middle East. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                Collected essays on the varied Jewish experience.

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                                                                                                • Fischel, Walter. Jews in the Economic and Political Life of Medieval Islam.. London: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britian and Ireland, 1968.

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                                                                                                  Fischel made extensive use of the works in the Cairo Geniza for this study.

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                                                                                                  • Frank, Daniel. The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society, and Identity: Proceedings of an International Conference Held by the Institute of Jewish Studies, University College London, 1992. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1995.

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                                                                                                    An overview of the sociological aspects of the medieval Jewish experience.

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                                                                                                    • Goitein, S. D. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol. 1, Economic Foundations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

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                                                                                                      This is the first of a six-volume work that provides a masterly synthesis of the documents preserved in the medieval Jewish synagogue. Other volumes focus on the community (Vol. 2), the family (Vol. 3), daily life (Vol. 4), and the individual (Vol. 5).

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                                                                                                      • Lewis, Bernard. The Jews of Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

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                                                                                                        The best introductory survey on this topic. First published in Tel-Aviv in 1977.

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                                                                                                        • Simon, Reeva Spector, Michael Menachem Laskier, and Sara Reguer, eds. The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in Modern Times. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

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                                                                                                          Collected essays from different perspectives.

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                                                                                                          • Stillman, Norman, comp. The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and a Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1979.

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                                                                                                            Includes texts and documents from the beginnings to the mid-19th century.

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                                                                                                            • Stillman, Norman, comp. The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1991.

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                                                                                                              Includes texts and documents from the mid-19th century to the 1960s.

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                                                                                                              The Christians Under Islam

                                                                                                              Many Christians came under the sovereignty of Islam, along with many Jews. Many of them converted to Islam (Gervers and Bizhaqi 1990), as did many Jews, but others lived for well over a millennium under the dhimma agreement (Cragg 1992, Griffith 2008), which granted them a measured degree of autonomy (Edelby 2004) and guaranteed the right to life, property, and religious freedom, if not equality in status with Muslims (Rose 1982). The Christians, who had powerful friends abroad, seem to have been more emboldened than the Jews in engaging their Muslim sovereigns in a not always friendly dialogue (Gaudeul 1984), which must always be read against the larger confrontation between Christian Europe and the “Abode of Islam” (Daniel 1997, Watt 1991, Wheatcroft 2004).

                                                                                                              • Cragg, Kenneth. The Arab Christian: A History in the Middle East. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1992.

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                                                                                                                The history of the various Near Eastern communities of Christians.

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                                                                                                                • Daniel, Norman. Islam and the West: The Making of an Image. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 1997.

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                                                                                                                  The classic study of the medieval era and beyond, first published in 1960.

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                                                                                                                  • Edelby, Néophyte. “The Legislative Autonomy of Christians in the Islamic World.” In Muslims and Others in Early Islamic Society. Edited by Robert Hoyland, 37–82. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004.

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                                                                                                                    Explores Christian self-governance in judicial matters.

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                                                                                                                    • Gaudeul, Jean-Marie. Encounters and Clashes: Islam and Christianity in History. Vol 1. Rome: Pontifical Institute, 1984.

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                                                                                                                      This historical survey is the first part of a two-volume collection. Volume 2 is a collection of apologetic and polemical texts.

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                                                                                                                      • Gervers, Michael, and Ramzi Bihzaki, eds. Conversion and Continuity: Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands, Eighth to Eighteenth Centuries. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1990.

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                                                                                                                        Surveys the experience of these communities, principally through the eyes of Western Christendom.

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                                                                                                                        • Griffith, Sidney H. The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

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                                                                                                                          A balanced account by preeminent historian.

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                                                                                                                          • Rose, Richard B. “Islam and the Development of Personal Status among Christian Dhimmis: Motives, Sources, Consequences.” The Muslim World 72, nos. 3–4 (1982): 159–179.

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                                                                                                                            A very quick survey of a very complex matter.

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                                                                                                                            • Watt, W. Montgomery. Muslim Christian Encounters: Perceptions and Misperceptions. London: Routledge, 1991.

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                                                                                                                              Written with a slight but discernible apologetic agenda.

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                                                                                                                              • Wheatcroft, Andrew. Infidels: A History of the Conflict Between Christendom and Islam. New York: Random House, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                A somewhat popular treatment by a European historian, though with a welcome emphasis on the politics of the conflict.

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                                                                                                                                The Poll Tax (Jizya)

                                                                                                                                Dhimmis, the Jews and Christians living under Islamic sovereignty, were protected by the dhimma agreement. That agreement guaranteed their right to life and property and religious freedom in return for political loyalty and the payment of an annual head tax (jizya), in addition to the traditional land tax (Heck 2004). The Qurʾan left the rate of taxation indeterminate, but Muslim lawyers established various means of determining the rate in the process of institutionalizing Islam (Cahen 1991, Cornell 1995). In the face of local variations (Ahmed 1985, Goitein 1963, Klein-Franke 2000) and the often ambiguous use of terms, there is no way of easily defining the terms of the jizya, or even of distinguishing it from the land tax (kharaj) that was levied on the conquered People of the Book. But there have been attempts (Dennett 1950, Lokkegaard 1950).

                                                                                                                                • Ahmed, Ziauddin. “Jizya and Kharaj in Early Islamic Egypt.” Journal of Islamic Studies 24 (1985): 377–387.

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                                                                                                                                  Explores the Egyptian evidence, both documentary and literary.

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                                                                                                                                  • Cahen, Claude. “Djizya.” In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. 2. Edited by B. Lewis, C. Pellat, and J. Schacht, 559–562. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 1991.

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                                                                                                                                    Still the best general survey of an amorphous institution.

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                                                                                                                                    • Cornell, Vincent J. “Jizyah.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, Vol. 2. Edited by John Esposito, 377–378. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

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                                                                                                                                      Includes a reflection on modern thinking on the tax.

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                                                                                                                                      • Dennett, D. C. Conversion and Poll Tax in Early Islam. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950.

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                                                                                                                                        Along with Lokkegaard 1950, one of the two standard treatments of the complex tax system of medieval Islam. Reprinted in Islamic Taxation: Two Studies (New York: Arno Press, 1973).

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                                                                                                                                        • Goitein, S. D. “Evidence of the Muslim Poll Tax from Non-Muslim Sources: A Geniza Study.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 6, no. 3 (1963): 278–295.

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                                                                                                                                          The Jewish documentary from Fatimid Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                          • Heck, Paul. “Poll Tax.” In Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Vol. 4. Edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe, 151–155 Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                            Discusses the Qurʾan's difficult testimony on the poll tax.

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                                                                                                                                            • Klein-Franke, Aviva. “Collecting the Djizya (Poll Tax) in the Yemen.” in Israel and Ishmael: Studies in Muslim-Jewish Relations. Edited by Tudor Parfitt, 175–206. Richmond, UK: Curzon, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                              Explores a local system of collection in a Muslim state.

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                                                                                                                                              • Lokkegaard, Frede. Islamic Taxation in the Classical Period. Copenhagen: Branner Og Korch, 1950.

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                                                                                                                                                Along with Dennett 1950, one of the two standard treatments of the complex tax system of medieval Islam. Reprinted in Islamic Taxation: Two Studies (New York: Arno Press, 1973).

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                                                                                                                                                Other Aspects of Dhimma

                                                                                                                                                The poll tax was the principal sign of submission exacted from the tributary People of the Book, but there were others. Proselytism on their part was banned, as was any enlargement of their communities by the construction of new churches or synagogues (Ward 1989). And in an attempt to discourage social segregation, distinctive clothing was prescribed for the tributaries (Lichtenstadter 1943) and intermarriage was regulated (Spectorsky 2000).

                                                                                                                                                • Lichtenstadter, Ilsa. “The Distinctive Dress of Non-Muslims in Islamic Countries.” Historia Judaica 5 (1943): 35–52.

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                                                                                                                                                  Looks at the question of how to tell who's what in the Abode of Islam.

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                                                                                                                                                  • Spectorsky, Susan. “Women of the People of the Book: Intermarriage in Early Fiqh Texts.” In Judaism and Islam: Boundaries, Communication, and Interaction: Essays in Honor of William H. Brinner. Edited by B. H. Hary, 269–278. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                    The earliest address of the problem of social separation.

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                                                                                                                                                    • Ward, Seth. “Construction and Repair of Churches and Synagogues in Islamic Law.” In Studies in Islamic and Judaic Traditions: Papers Presented at the Institute for Islamic-Judaic Studies, Center for Judaic Studies, University of Denver, Vol. 2. Edited by W. S. Brinner and S. Ricks, 169–188. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989.

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                                                                                                                                                      Discusses the ongoing debate about construction (forbidden) and repair (permitted) of churches and synagogues.

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                                                                                                                                                      The Millet System

                                                                                                                                                      The dhimma contract defined and regulated the status of the People of the Book living under Muslim sovereignty. It made no distinctions, however, among them: Jews, Christians, and, later, Zoroastrians were all granted the same privileges and subject to the same restrictions. In 1453, the same year that he took Constantinople from its last Eastern Christian defenders, the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II organized the 90 percent of his subjects who were not part of the Ottoman ruling institution. They were organized both horizontally, according to profession and occupation, and vertically, according to millet, or religious community (Braude and Lewis 1982, Ercan 2002, Braude 1982). In theory, the Muslims constituted a millet along with the others, but in reality the millet system, which evolved over time, applied only to the empire's tolerated religious minorities (Kazici 2002), namely the Jews, Armenians, and Orthodox Christians. The Orthodox millet was headed by the Greek Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople. His millet-jurisdiction included not only the Greek Christians but the churches of Bulgaria, Serbia, and Bosnia (Clogg 1982). Likewise, the Armenian patriarch in Constantinople (Bardakjian 1982) presided over the fortunes not only of his own church but also of the Monophysite churches in the Ottoman lands, notably the Copts of Egypt and the Jacobites of Syria and Iraq. The Jewish millet was presided over by the chief rabbi of Istanbul (Epstein 1982) and included both Sephardic and the less numerous and influential Ashkenazi Jews (Levy 1994). The Sultan dealt with his non-Muslim subjects through the heads of the millets, who naturally favored their own proper constituents. In the Balkans this led to increased estrangement between the Slavic churches and the Greek Orthodox Church, under whose jurisdiction they were now placed. The three millets thus became, in effect, Ottoman institutions, organs of administration in the sprawling bureaucracy of empire.

                                                                                                                                                      • Bardakjian, Kevork. “The Rise of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, 89–100. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                        Explores the beginnings of the Armenian millet.

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                                                                                                                                                        • Braude, Benjamin. “Foundation Myths of the Millet System.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, 69–88. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                          A collection of stories the Turks told themselves.

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                                                                                                                                                          • Braude, Benjamin, and Bernard Lewis, eds. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society. 2 vols. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                            A rich collection of essays covering all aspects of the millet system.

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                                                                                                                                                            • Clogg, Richard. “The Greek Millet in the Ottoman Empire.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, pp. 185–208. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                              An investigation of the evolution of the “Orthodox” millet.

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                                                                                                                                                              • Epstein, Mark A. “The Leadership of the Ottoman Jews in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, 101–116. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                Looks at the question, Who spoke for the Jews? Epstein notes that this was a problem for both the rulers and the ruled.

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                                                                                                                                                                • Ercan, Yavuz. “Non-Muslim Communities Under the Ottoman Empire (Millet System).” In The Great Ottoman Turkish Civilization, Vol. 2, Economy and Society. Edited by Kemal Çiçek, 381–391. Ankara, Turkey: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                  A brief overview of the millet system as seen through Turkish eyes.

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                                                                                                                                                                  • Issawi, Charles. “The Transformation of the Economic Position of the Millets in the Nineteenth Century.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, 261–286. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                    A look at how international trade transformed the millet system.

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                                                                                                                                                                    • Kazici, Ziya. “Tolerance in the Ottoman Empire.” In The Turks, Vol. 3, The Ottomans. Edited by Hasan Celal Güzel, 568–578. Ankara: Yeni Türkiye, 2002.

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                                                                                                                                                                      A Turkish reading of the millet system through the prism of tolerance.

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                                                                                                                                                                      • Levy, Avigdor, ed. The Jews of the Ottoman Empire. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1994.

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                                                                                                                                                                        A collection of studies on the millet and broader issues of the Jews in the empire.

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                                                                                                                                                                        Dhimma And The Nation-State

                                                                                                                                                                        The emergence of modern states out of the medieval Muslim empires created new and challenging local conditions that had to be met on the local level. The Sharia's unalterable categorization and treatment of its non-Muslim subjects as acceptable but essentially and irreversibly inferior religious communities conflicts with the modern nation-state notion that membership in political community, or citizenship, is a juridical status conferred by the state, and though it can be impaired or abrogated, it does not depend on race, ethnicity, or religion. The evidence of the continuing tension is available from all across the Muslim world, as can be seen in the evidence collected in the case-study literature in this section. Consult Khanbaghi 2006 and Sanasarian 2000 on Iran; Berger 2004 on Egypt; Chevallier 1982 on Syria; Cohen 1982 on Palestine; Grafton 2003 on Lebanon; Kaka Khel 1984 on Pakistan; Kolo 2007 on Iraq; and Muhibbu-Din 2004 on West Africa.

                                                                                                                                                                        • Berger, Maurits. “Regulating Tolerance: Protecting Egypt's Minorities.” In Standing Trial: Law and Person in the Modern Middle East. Edited by Baudouin Depret, 345–371. London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                          A look at the situation of the Christian Copts in Egypt.

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                                                                                                                                                                          • Chevallier, Dominique. “Non-Muslim Communities in Arab Cities.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, 159–166. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                            Armenians and Jews in Aleppo and Damascus.

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                                                                                                                                                                            • Cohen, Amnon. “The Realities of the Millet System: Jerusalem in the Sixteenth Century.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, 7–18. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                              A study of actual adjudications from the Ottoman court archives for Palestine.

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                                                                                                                                                                              • Grafton, David D. The Christians of Lebanon: Political Rights in Islamic Law. London: I.B. Tauris, 2003.

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                                                                                                                                                                                Examines the tension between civil and religious law in a secular state.

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                                                                                                                                                                                • Kaka Khel, Muhammad Nazeer. “The Status of Non-Muslim Minorities in Pakistan.” Islamic Studies 23, no. 1 (1984): 45–54.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Explores the relations between Muslims and non-Muslims in Pakistan.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  • Khanbaghi, Aptin. The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran. London: I.B. Tauris, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    Khanbaghi looks at how the Iranian situation is complicated by the presence of Zoroastrians and Bahaʾis.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kolo, Kamal Y. “Perspectives of Christianity in the Middle East: A Case Study of the Historical and Current Struggle for Survival of the Aramaic Christians in Iraq.” Archív Orientální 75 (2007): 171–190.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      An examination of Nestorians, Jacobites, and others in Muslim and secular Iraq.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      • Muhibbu-Din, M. A. “Principles of Islamic Polity Towards ahl al-Kitab and Religious Minorities.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 24, no. 1 (2004): 163–174.

                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/1360200042000212269Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                        Muslim theory and practice in West Africa are discussed.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sanasarian, Eliz. Religious Minorities in Iran. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          Examines the dhimmis in modern Iran.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          The Modern Polemic

                                                                                                                                                                                          The dhimma offered to its conquered peoples a contract that, on the one hand, granted protection, and on the other, fixed a tributary status that could be removed only by conversion to Islam. The first element might be read as formal toleration or as freedom of religion, and the second as a sentence to a kind of permanent “second-class citizenship.” This reading of the second element of dhimma status was popularized at the end of the last century by a series of books from one “Bat Yeʾor,” the pen name of Gisele Littmann, an Egytian Jew by birth who is now a British citizen. Three of her books (see Yeʾor 1985, Yeʾor 1996, Yeʾor 2001) and raised the issue of “dhimmitude” as a servile status, an approach prompted not only by personal experience but by what was once the often expressed opinion that Jews under Islam experienced a “Golden Age,” in which Muslim tolerance engendered a notable flowering of Jewish culture.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Yeʾor, Bat. The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam. Translated by David Maisel, with Paul Fenton, and David Littman. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1985.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            Uses the descriptive approach in describing the oppressed legal condition of Islam's subject minorities, as testified to by a great number of cited textual witnesses.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            • Yeʾor, Bat. The Decline of Eastern Christianity: From Jihad to Dhimmitude; Seventh–Twentieth Century. Translated by Miriam Kochan and David Littman. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              In this volume, which is as much about Jews as it is about Christians, the author argues the thesis that underlines her work: that the dhimmi status and jihad, or holy war, are two sides of the same Muslim coin, and that the first is the unmistakable consequence on the second.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yeʾor, Bat. Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide. Translated by Miriam Kochan and David Littman. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2001.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                A more broadly ranging treatment of the same subject. A fairly balanced presentation of Bat Yeʾor's life and work, and of the reception her work has received.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Minorities

                                                                                                                                                                                                Whereas Islam's medieval jurists followed the Qurʾan and thought about non-Muslims in terms of their relationship to the Islamic revelation—whether they were “unbelievers” (kafirun) or affiliated Scripturalists (the “People of the Book”)—modern thinkers, both non-Muslim and Muslim alike, prefer to cast the issue in the (relatively) value-free category of “minorities.” (Bouhdiba 1998, Martin 2005, Muhibbu-Din 2000). This is no easy matter, since dhimmi stresses the subservient nature of the conquered communities (Cahen 2004, Kamaraswamy 2003), which is in turn built into Islamic law (Aruçi 2006). But the discussion goes on, and in a lively fashion (Furman 2000, Nielsen 2003).

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Aruçi, Muhammed. “Islamic Authority and Its Attitude Towards Non-Muslim Groups and Minorities in Muslim Society.” In Authority, Privacy and Public Order in Islam: proceedings of the 22nd Congress of L'Union Européenne des Arabisants et Islamisants. Edited by B. Michalak-Pikulska, and A. Pikulski, 249–266. Leuven, The Netherlands: Peeters, 2006.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  A collection of papers dealing with public weal and private good in the face of Islamic canon law.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bouhdiba, Abdelwahab. The Protection of Minorities. In The Different Aspects of Islamic Culture: The Individual and Society in Islam. Edited by Abdelwahab Bouhdiba, et al., 331–346. Paris: UNESCO, 1998.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Presents a liberal reading of the evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cahen, Claude. “Socio-Economic History and Islamic Studies: Problems of Bias in the Adaptation of the Indigenous Population to Islam.” In Muslims and Others in Early Islamic Society. Edited by Robert Hoyland, 259–276. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      A review of the historical evidence.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Furman, Uriah. “Minorities in Contemporary Islamist Discourse.” Middle Eastern Studies 36, no. 4 (2000): 1–20.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        DOI: 10.1080/00263200008701329Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Presents current conversations on the issue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kamaraswamy, P. R. “Problems of Studying Minorities in the Middle East.” Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations 2, no. 2 (2003): 244–264.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          A look at the conflicting views of People of the Book. Available online.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Martin, Richard. “From Dhimmis to Minorities: Shifting Constructions of the Non-Muslim Other from Early to Modern Islam.” In Nationalism and Minority Identities in Islamic Societies. Edited by Maya Shatzmiller, 3–21. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            The best introduction to the subject, by a group of leading scholars.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Muhibbu-Din, M. A. “Ahl al-Kitab and Religious Minorities in the Muslim State: Historical Context and Contemporary Challenges.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 20, no. 1 (2000): 111–127.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/13602000050008933Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                              An overview from a Muslim perspective.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Nielsen, Jørgen S. “Contemporary Discussions of Religious Minorities in Muslim Countries.” Islam and Christian Muslim Relations 14, no. 3 (2003): 325–335.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Explores who is saying what about the religious minority in Muslim countries.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Nation and Citizenship

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The emergence of modern secularizing states in the Middle East created an alternative to the dhimma model of membership in the new national community, that of citizenship. In the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th, the concepts of nationalism and citizenship presented Muslims with the task of rethinking the whole notion of community membership, for Muslims and Non-Muslims alike. Karpat 1982 and Rachieru 2002 discuss how this issue was dealt with in Turkey. Although many of the modernizing reformers were quite willing to embrace the new notion of political citizenship (Abdin 1997, Hussain 1995, Saeed 1999, Scott 2007, Zebiri 1995), not all traditionalists and political Islamists were willing to accept dhimmis as equal citizens. In the second half of the 20th century, therefore, the Islamists had to confront the question of how to deal with the religious minorities (the People of the Book) in a society that was “modern” but still ruled (or at least guided) by Sharia, with its elaborate rules for dhimmis (Khatab 2002)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Abdin, Amira Shamma. “Modernist Interpretation of the Status of Non-Muslims in Muslim Society.” Maghreb Review 22, nos. 3–4 (1997): 193–220.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A liberal deconstruction of the traditional dhimmi view.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hussain, Sheikh Showkat. “Religion, Religious Minorities and the State: Modern National Models and Islamic Principles.” Islamic and Comparative Law Review 15 (1995): 171–196.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An attempt to reconcile the juridical and innate state view of membership in the community.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Karpat, Kemal. “Millets and Nationality: The Roots of the Incongruity of Nation and State in the Post-Ottoman Period.” In Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, Vol. 1. Edited by Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, 141–170. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Discusses the Turkish Republic's early attempts to cross from millet to citizenship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Khatab, Sayed. “Citizenship rights of Non-Muslims in the Islamic State of Hakimiyya Espoused by Sayyid Qutb.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 13, no. 2 (2002): 162–187.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The views of one of the founders of modern Islamic fundamentalism on the role of non-Muslims in the state.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rachieru, Silvana. “Invented Identities—Case Study: The Ottoman Citizenship.” Southeastern Europe 29 (2002): 85–92.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A pioneering essay on Ottoman citizenship.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Saeed, Abdullah. “Rethinking Citizenship Rights of Non-Muslims in an Islamic State: Rashid al-Gannushi's Contribution to the Evolving Debate.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 10, no. 3 (1999): 307–323.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DOI: 10.1080/09596419908721189Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A Tunisian liberal's thinking on the citizenship issue.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Scott, Rachel M. “Contextual Citizenship in Modern Islamic Thought.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 18, no. 1 (2007): 1–18.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DOI: 10.1080/09596410601070990Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explores modern attempts at modifying the traditional (and unchanging) dhimmi status.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Zebiri, Kate. “Relations Between Muslims and Non-Muslims in the Thought of Western Educated Muslim Intellectuals.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 6, no. 2 (1995): 255–277.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DOI: 10.1080/09596419508721055Save Citation »Export Citation »E-mail Citation »

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The evolution of one liberal strand of thinking on the issue.

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